A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Warning

Message: fopen(/var/lib/php/sessions/ci_session9ffm6h7aj2kiiojip2hhbs3g7ckngh2s): failed to open stream: No space left on device

Filename: drivers/Session_files_driver.php

Line Number: 174


File: /var/www/oakspringuniversity.com/public_html/application/controllers/Frontpage.php
Line: 9
Function: __construct

File: /var/www/oakspringuniversity.com/public_html/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Warning

Message: session_start(): Failed to read session data: user (path: /var/lib/php/sessions)

Filename: Session/Session.php

Line Number: 143


File: /var/www/oakspringuniversity.com/public_html/application/controllers/Frontpage.php
Line: 9
Function: __construct

File: /var/www/oakspringuniversity.com/public_html/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

NPV: Health Insurance to the Base of the Pyramid Net Present Value Case Analysis

Health Insurance to the Base of the Pyramid Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Health Insurance to the Base of the Pyramid case study

At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Health Insurance to the Base of the Pyramid case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Suresh B.P., S.R. Asokan. The Health Insurance to the Base of the Pyramid (referred as “Trust Scheme” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Sales & Marketing. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Personnel policies, Strategy.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment

Case Description of Health Insurance to the Base of the Pyramid Case Study

The case describes a unique insurance scheme called Krupa Arogya Suraksha, promoted by the Shree Krishna Arogya Trust (Trust). The product was designed with the aim of extending basic health coverage to the "base-of-the-pyramid" (BoP) population at an affordable premium. The services were provided by Shree Krishna Hospital, of which the Trust was an associate. The Trust was looking at a win-win situation: in providing modern health services to a larger, lower-income group, the facilities and infrastructure of the hospital would be better utilized. In the five years since its creation, membership in the scheme had increased threefold to 43,000. These members/consumers accounted for 13 per cent of patients treated by the hospital. Thus, the twin objectives of extending affordable healthcare to the lower-income segment and increased utilization of the facilities at the hospital were achieved to some extent. However, the Trust was not able to meet the cost of the health care offered under the scheme from the premiums collected and was dependent on donors to absorb the shortfall. The Trust's management was concerned about the sustainability of such an arrangement and was looking for ways to make the scheme pay for itself.

Case Authors : Suresh B.P., S.R. Asokan

Topic : Sales & Marketing

Related Areas : Personnel policies, Strategy

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Health Insurance to the Base of the Pyramid Case Study

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10002751) -10002751 - -
Year 1 3454955 -6547796 3454955 0.9434 3259392
Year 2 3974396 -2573400 7429351 0.89 3537198
Year 3 3940687 1367287 11370038 0.8396 3308677
Year 4 3250504 4617791 14620542 0.7921 2574704
TOTAL 14620542 12679970

The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2677219

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting

What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.

Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting

There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Profitability Index
2. Internal Rate of Return
3. Net Present Value
4. Payback Period

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Trust Scheme shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.
2. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Trust Scheme have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.

Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Health Insurance to the Base of the Pyramid

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Sales & Marketing Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Trust Scheme often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Trust Scheme needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10002751) -10002751 - -
Year 1 3454955 -6547796 3454955 0.8696 3004309
Year 2 3974396 -2573400 7429351 0.7561 3005214
Year 3 3940687 1367287 11370038 0.6575 2591066
Year 4 3250504 4617791 14620542 0.5718 1858486
TOTAL 10459075

The Net NPV after 4 years is 456324

(10459075 - 10002751 )

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%

If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10002751) -10002751 - -
Year 1 3454955 -6547796 3454955 0.8333 2879129
Year 2 3974396 -2573400 7429351 0.6944 2759997
Year 3 3940687 1367287 11370038 0.5787 2280490
Year 4 3250504 4617791 14620542 0.4823 1567566
TOTAL 9487182

The Net NPV after 4 years is -515569

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9487182 - 10002751 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Trust Scheme to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.

Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Trust Scheme has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Trust Scheme can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Trust Scheme, then the stock price of the Trust Scheme should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Trust Scheme should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.

References & Further Readings

Suresh B.P., S.R. Asokan (2018), "Health Insurance to the Base of the Pyramid Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.