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Electronic Service Delivery Implementation and Acceptance Strategy Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Electronic Service Delivery Implementation and Acceptance Strategy case study


At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Electronic Service Delivery Implementation and Acceptance Strategy case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Ali F. Farhoomand, Marissa McCauley. The Electronic Service Delivery Implementation and Acceptance Strategy (referred as “Esd Esdsl” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Technology & Operations. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Government, Strategy execution.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment




Case Description of Electronic Service Delivery Implementation and Acceptance Strategy Case Study


In December 2000, the government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) launched the Electronic Service Delivery (ESD) scheme, a flagship e-government project. The overall e-government strategy was to use a portal for the provision of electronic public services and commercial services, making the ESD portal (www.esd.gov.hk) a key element. The government contracted a single private operator to implement and provide ESD services for five years. The contract was awarded in November 1999 to ESD Services Ltd. (ESDSL). This case discusses how the HKSAR developed ESD's business model, which is a combination of government-to-citizen and business-to-citizen models, and how ESDSL is implementing it. Also focuses on the major challenges and issues that the private operator, ESDSL, faced in building, implementing, and managing an e-government project. ESD is in its second year of implementation and an immediate issue is the slow adoption of online transactions by the public, which is important in relation to the viability of the ESD's business model.


Case Authors : Ali F. Farhoomand, Marissa McCauley

Topic : Technology & Operations

Related Areas : Government, Strategy execution




Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Electronic Service Delivery Implementation and Acceptance Strategy Case Study


Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10011360) -10011360 - -
Year 1 3454124 -6557236 3454124 0.9434 3258608
Year 2 3973082 -2584154 7427206 0.89 3536029
Year 3 3940429 1356275 11367635 0.8396 3308460
Year 4 3234016 4590291 14601651 0.7921 2561644
TOTAL 14601651 12664740


The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2653380

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting


What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.




Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting


There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Net Present Value
2. Internal Rate of Return
3. Payback Period
4. Profitability Index

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Esd Esdsl have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.
2. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Esd Esdsl shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.




Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Electronic Service Delivery Implementation and Acceptance Strategy

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Technology & Operations Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Esd Esdsl often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Esd Esdsl needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10011360) -10011360 - -
Year 1 3454124 -6557236 3454124 0.8696 3003586
Year 2 3973082 -2584154 7427206 0.7561 3004221
Year 3 3940429 1356275 11367635 0.6575 2590896
Year 4 3234016 4590291 14601651 0.5718 1849059
TOTAL 10447762


The Net NPV after 4 years is 436402

(10447762 - 10011360 )






Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%


If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10011360) -10011360 - -
Year 1 3454124 -6557236 3454124 0.8333 2878437
Year 2 3973082 -2584154 7427206 0.6944 2759085
Year 3 3940429 1356275 11367635 0.5787 2280341
Year 4 3234016 4590291 14601651 0.4823 1559614
TOTAL 9477476


The Net NPV after 4 years is -533884

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9477476 - 10011360 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Esd Esdsl to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.



Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Esd Esdsl has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Esd Esdsl can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Esd Esdsl, then the stock price of the Esd Esdsl should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Esd Esdsl should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.




References & Further Readings

Ali F. Farhoomand, Marissa McCauley (2018), "Electronic Service Delivery Implementation and Acceptance Strategy Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.