Working Capital: A Summary of Ratios by Industry Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Working Capital: A Summary of Ratios by Industry case study

At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Working Capital: A Summary of Ratios by Industry case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Luann J. Lynch, Graham Gillam, Jennifer Forman. The Working Capital: A Summary of Ratios by Industry (referred as “Ratios Outstanding” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Finance & Accounting. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, .

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment

Case Description of Working Capital: A Summary of Ratios by Industry Case Study

The case graphically presents various working capital ratios (days inventory outstanding, days sales outstanding, days payables outstanding, cash conversion cycle, and operating cycle) over the 2009 through 2012 period by industry and for specific well-known companies. Students are given the opportunity to craft an intuitive story around the ratios they are given in the case. The case works well as a supplement for classes on working capital management. It is designed to help students relate the often difficult-to-grasp concepts around working capital and working capital ratios to industries and companies that they are familiar with, using companies whose business models and business practices are particularly good illustrations of the relevant concepts.

Case Authors : Luann J. Lynch, Graham Gillam, Jennifer Forman

Topic : Finance & Accounting

Related Areas :

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Working Capital: A Summary of Ratios by Industry Case Study

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10015670) -10015670 - -
Year 1 3469158 -6546512 3469158 0.9434 3272791
Year 2 3970053 -2576459 7439211 0.89 3533333
Year 3 3965894 1389435 11405105 0.8396 3329841
Year 4 3242626 4632061 14647731 0.7921 2568464
TOTAL 14647731 12704428

The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2688758

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting

What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.

Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting

There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Profitability Index
2. Payback Period
3. Internal Rate of Return
4. Net Present Value

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Ratios Outstanding shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.
2. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Ratios Outstanding have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.

Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Working Capital: A Summary of Ratios by Industry

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Finance & Accounting Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Ratios Outstanding often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Ratios Outstanding needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10015670) -10015670 - -
Year 1 3469158 -6546512 3469158 0.8696 3016659
Year 2 3970053 -2576459 7439211 0.7561 3001930
Year 3 3965894 1389435 11405105 0.6575 2607640
Year 4 3242626 4632061 14647731 0.5718 1853982
TOTAL 10480211

The Net NPV after 4 years is 464541

(10480211 - 10015670 )

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%

If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10015670) -10015670 - -
Year 1 3469158 -6546512 3469158 0.8333 2890965
Year 2 3970053 -2576459 7439211 0.6944 2756981
Year 3 3965894 1389435 11405105 0.5787 2295078
Year 4 3242626 4632061 14647731 0.4823 1563766
TOTAL 9506790

The Net NPV after 4 years is -508880

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9506790 - 10015670 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Ratios Outstanding to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.

Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Ratios Outstanding has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Ratios Outstanding can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Ratios Outstanding, then the stock price of the Ratios Outstanding should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Ratios Outstanding should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.

References & Further Readings

Luann J. Lynch, Graham Gillam, Jennifer Forman (2018), "Working Capital: A Summary of Ratios by Industry Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.