Citigroup in Post-WTO China (A) Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Citigroup in Post-WTO China (A) case study

At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Citigroup in Post-WTO China (A) case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by David W. Conklin. The Citigroup in Post-WTO China (A) (referred as “Citigroup Travelers” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Global Business. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, .

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment

Case Description of Citigroup in Post-WTO China (A) Case Study

China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) at the end of 2001 brought promises that foreign financial institutions would be permitted to operate throughout China. In 1998, Citicorp and Travelers Group Inc. had merged to create the new Citigroup Inc. Travelers brought a vast array of financial services that added to Citibank's existing portfolio of consumer and commercial lending. Travelers had developed extensive businesses in investment banking, asset management, life insurance, and property/casualty insurance, as well as consumer lending. Citigroup now had to determine the business prospects for each of its activities in the growing China market. Fears of social and economic dislocation might lead China to impose regulatory restrictions limiting the pace of foreign expansion. Economic growth might be impeded by the existing political structure, and reforms might not occur in the near term. A myriad of other challenges included human resources difficulties, e-commerce limitations, and regional disparities. The pace of privatization of state-owned enterprises and the societal preferences in regard to alternative insurance and investment products added to the uncertainties. Citibank had a record of success in less developed countries, and had developed certain competitive advantages that might be the basis for success in China, but whether and how these could be extended to other Citigroup financial activities remained an important question.

Case Authors : David W. Conklin

Topic : Global Business

Related Areas :

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Citigroup in Post-WTO China (A) Case Study

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10022871) -10022871 - -
Year 1 3462782 -6560089 3462782 0.9434 3266775
Year 2 3962823 -2597266 7425605 0.89 3526898
Year 3 3972892 1375626 11398497 0.8396 3335717
Year 4 3250232 4625858 14648729 0.7921 2574488
TOTAL 14648729 12703879

The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2681008

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting

What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.

Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting

There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Internal Rate of Return
2. Profitability Index
3. Payback Period
4. Net Present Value

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Citigroup Travelers shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.
2. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Citigroup Travelers have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.

Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Citigroup in Post-WTO China (A)

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Global Business Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Citigroup Travelers often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Citigroup Travelers needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10022871) -10022871 - -
Year 1 3462782 -6560089 3462782 0.8696 3011115
Year 2 3962823 -2597266 7425605 0.7561 2996464
Year 3 3972892 1375626 11398497 0.6575 2612241
Year 4 3250232 4625858 14648729 0.5718 1858331
TOTAL 10478150

The Net NPV after 4 years is 455279

(10478150 - 10022871 )

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%

If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10022871) -10022871 - -
Year 1 3462782 -6560089 3462782 0.8333 2885652
Year 2 3962823 -2597266 7425605 0.6944 2751960
Year 3 3972892 1375626 11398497 0.5787 2299127
Year 4 3250232 4625858 14648729 0.4823 1567434
TOTAL 9504174

The Net NPV after 4 years is -518697

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9504174 - 10022871 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Citigroup Travelers to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.

Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Citigroup Travelers has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Citigroup Travelers can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Citigroup Travelers, then the stock price of the Citigroup Travelers should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Citigroup Travelers should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.

References & Further Readings

David W. Conklin (2018), "Citigroup in Post-WTO China (A) Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.