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EUROCAP Bank: Bonuses Driving Performance or Driving Discontent Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for EUROCAP Bank: Bonuses Driving Performance or Driving Discontent case study


At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. EUROCAP Bank: Bonuses Driving Performance or Driving Discontent case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Gilbert Wong, Heather McGregor, Shamza Khan, Pauline Ng. The EUROCAP Bank: Bonuses Driving Performance or Driving Discontent (referred as “Eurocap Equities” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Organizational Development. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Motivating people.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment




Case Description of EUROCAP Bank: Bonuses Driving Performance or Driving Discontent Case Study


By March 2000's first quarter evaluation, it was evident that EUROCAP Equities Japan had performed beyond expectations. Its primary year-2000 objective was to become the top-choice broker for its client for Japanese equities. However, when bonuses were handed out in March for 1999's performance, two key research analysts threatened to resign and the team was overall dispirited, as bonuses were lower than expected and lower than industry payouts. Key issues facing EUROCAP Equities Japan management included: How would key employees' expectations be managed in 2000? How was EUROCAP Equities Japan going to retain its employees in a bull-run with competitive pressures on the small local resource pool? How would employees be motivated through compensation packages, and what other methods would be used to make employees excel in their performance and thrust EUROCAP Equities Japan's performance into the limelight?


Case Authors : Gilbert Wong, Heather McGregor, Shamza Khan, Pauline Ng

Topic : Organizational Development

Related Areas : Motivating people




Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for EUROCAP Bank: Bonuses Driving Performance or Driving Discontent Case Study


Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10018308) -10018308 - -
Year 1 3451124 -6567184 3451124 0.9434 3255777
Year 2 3979730 -2587454 7430854 0.89 3541946
Year 3 3936847 1349393 11367701 0.8396 3305453
Year 4 3239370 4588763 14607071 0.7921 2565884
TOTAL 14607071 12669060


The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2650752

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting


What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.




Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting


There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Profitability Index
2. Net Present Value
3. Internal Rate of Return
4. Payback Period

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Eurocap Equities shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.
2. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Eurocap Equities have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.




Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of EUROCAP Bank: Bonuses Driving Performance or Driving Discontent

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Organizational Development Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Eurocap Equities often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Eurocap Equities needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10018308) -10018308 - -
Year 1 3451124 -6567184 3451124 0.8696 3000977
Year 2 3979730 -2587454 7430854 0.7561 3009248
Year 3 3936847 1349393 11367701 0.6575 2588541
Year 4 3239370 4588763 14607071 0.5718 1852120
TOTAL 10450886


The Net NPV after 4 years is 432578

(10450886 - 10018308 )






Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%


If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10018308) -10018308 - -
Year 1 3451124 -6567184 3451124 0.8333 2875937
Year 2 3979730 -2587454 7430854 0.6944 2763701
Year 3 3936847 1349393 11367701 0.5787 2278268
Year 4 3239370 4588763 14607071 0.4823 1562196
TOTAL 9480102


The Net NPV after 4 years is -538206

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9480102 - 10018308 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Eurocap Equities to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.



Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Eurocap Equities has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Eurocap Equities can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Eurocap Equities, then the stock price of the Eurocap Equities should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Eurocap Equities should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.




References & Further Readings

Gilbert Wong, Heather McGregor, Shamza Khan, Pauline Ng (2018), "EUROCAP Bank: Bonuses Driving Performance or Driving Discontent Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.