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Procter & Gamble: Global Business Services Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Procter & Gamble: Global Business Services case study


At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Procter & Gamble: Global Business Services case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Thomas J. DeLong, David L. Ager, Warren Brackin, Alex Cabanas. The Procter & Gamble: Global Business Services (referred as “Gbs Walker” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Organizational Development. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Decision making, Human resource management, Operations management, Organizational culture, Organizational structure.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment




Case Description of Procter & Gamble: Global Business Services Case Study


Dave Walker, vice-president of business service opportunities and chairman of the governance team at Procter & Gamble, must decide what to do with P&G's 5,700 employee Global Business Services (GBS) group. GBS brought together internal services such as finance, accounting, employee services, customer logistics, purchasing, and information technology into a single, global organization supporting all P&G business units. Recently, P&G CEO A.G. Lafley questioned whether continued investment in GBS represented the best use of P&G's resources. Walker and the other members of the governance team must decide whether to spin off GBS, outsource GBS services to an outside company, outsource the GBS divisions separately to best-of-breed companies, or keep the group in-house. In making the decision, Walker and the members of the team must consider the impact on the organization of altering the existing relationships between the members of GBS and the other employees at P&G. Teaching Purpose: To consider the issues inherent in any decision to outsource services and the impact of such a change on the company.


Case Authors : Thomas J. DeLong, David L. Ager, Warren Brackin, Alex Cabanas

Topic : Organizational Development

Related Areas : Decision making, Human resource management, Operations management, Organizational culture, Organizational structure




Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Procter & Gamble: Global Business Services Case Study


Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10016258) -10016258 - -
Year 1 3462836 -6553422 3462836 0.9434 3266826
Year 2 3969443 -2583979 7432279 0.89 3532790
Year 3 3940513 1356534 11372792 0.8396 3308531
Year 4 3228711 4585245 14601503 0.7921 2557442
TOTAL 14601503 12665589


The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2649331

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting


What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.




Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting


There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Payback Period
2. Internal Rate of Return
3. Net Present Value
4. Profitability Index

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Gbs Walker have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.
2. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Gbs Walker shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.




Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Procter & Gamble: Global Business Services

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Organizational Development Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Gbs Walker often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Gbs Walker needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10016258) -10016258 - -
Year 1 3462836 -6553422 3462836 0.8696 3011162
Year 2 3969443 -2583979 7432279 0.7561 3001469
Year 3 3940513 1356534 11372792 0.6575 2590951
Year 4 3228711 4585245 14601503 0.5718 1846026
TOTAL 10449608


The Net NPV after 4 years is 433350

(10449608 - 10016258 )






Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%


If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10016258) -10016258 - -
Year 1 3462836 -6553422 3462836 0.8333 2885697
Year 2 3969443 -2583979 7432279 0.6944 2756558
Year 3 3940513 1356534 11372792 0.5787 2280389
Year 4 3228711 4585245 14601503 0.4823 1557056
TOTAL 9479700


The Net NPV after 4 years is -536558

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9479700 - 10016258 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Gbs Walker to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.



Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Gbs Walker has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Gbs Walker can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Gbs Walker, then the stock price of the Gbs Walker should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Gbs Walker should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.




References & Further Readings

Thomas J. DeLong, David L. Ager, Warren Brackin, Alex Cabanas (2018), "Procter & Gamble: Global Business Services Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.