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Evaluating Sponsorship through the Lens of the Resource-Based View: The Potential for Sustained Competitive Advantage Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Evaluating Sponsorship through the Lens of the Resource-Based View: The Potential for Sustained Competitive Advantage case study


At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Evaluating Sponsorship through the Lens of the Resource-Based View: The Potential for Sustained Competitive Advantage case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Jonathan A. Jensen, Joe B. Cobbs, Brian A. Turner. The Evaluating Sponsorship through the Lens of the Resource-Based View: The Potential for Sustained Competitive Advantage (referred as “Sponsorship Advantage” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Sales & Marketing. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Competitive strategy, Marketing.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment




Case Description of Evaluating Sponsorship through the Lens of the Resource-Based View: The Potential for Sustained Competitive Advantage Case Study


The resource-based view (RBV) of the firm has become a prominent management theory that firms can use to analyze resources as potential sources of competitive advantage. Theorists have suggested sponsorship of sport properties as one such resource, yet specific cases of sponsorship's role in a firm's achievement of a sustained advantage over competitors have yet to be explored. This article illuminates the case of Visa's longstanding global sponsorship of the Olympic Games, which was initiated and leveraged to counteract competitor American Express' advantage with global business travelers. Evidence is presented that supports Visa's achievement of a competitive advantage during the term of the sponsorship. The case is then used to develop a conceptual model based on the RBV to identify the key characteristics of sponsored properties capable of assisting the sponsoring firm in achieving a sustained competitive advantage. From a managerial perspective, the model is designed to assist marketing managers tasked with the identification and evaluation of potential sponsorship properties.


Case Authors : Jonathan A. Jensen, Joe B. Cobbs, Brian A. Turner

Topic : Sales & Marketing

Related Areas : Competitive strategy, Marketing




Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Evaluating Sponsorship through the Lens of the Resource-Based View: The Potential for Sustained Competitive Advantage Case Study


Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10019210) -10019210 - -
Year 1 3460604 -6558606 3460604 0.9434 3264721
Year 2 3980644 -2577962 7441248 0.89 3542759
Year 3 3944911 1366949 11386159 0.8396 3312223
Year 4 3231488 4598437 14617647 0.7921 2559641
TOTAL 14617647 12679344


The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2660134

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting


What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.




Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting


There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Internal Rate of Return
2. Payback Period
3. Profitability Index
4. Net Present Value

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Sponsorship Advantage have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.
2. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Sponsorship Advantage shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.




Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Evaluating Sponsorship through the Lens of the Resource-Based View: The Potential for Sustained Competitive Advantage

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Sales & Marketing Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Sponsorship Advantage often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Sponsorship Advantage needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10019210) -10019210 - -
Year 1 3460604 -6558606 3460604 0.8696 3009221
Year 2 3980644 -2577962 7441248 0.7561 3009939
Year 3 3944911 1366949 11386159 0.6575 2593843
Year 4 3231488 4598437 14617647 0.5718 1847614
TOTAL 10460616


The Net NPV after 4 years is 441406

(10460616 - 10019210 )






Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%


If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10019210) -10019210 - -
Year 1 3460604 -6558606 3460604 0.8333 2883837
Year 2 3980644 -2577962 7441248 0.6944 2764336
Year 3 3944911 1366949 11386159 0.5787 2282935
Year 4 3231488 4598437 14617647 0.4823 1558395
TOTAL 9489502


The Net NPV after 4 years is -529708

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9489502 - 10019210 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Sponsorship Advantage to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.



Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Sponsorship Advantage has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Sponsorship Advantage can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Sponsorship Advantage, then the stock price of the Sponsorship Advantage should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Sponsorship Advantage should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.




References & Further Readings

Jonathan A. Jensen, Joe B. Cobbs, Brian A. Turner (2018), "Evaluating Sponsorship through the Lens of the Resource-Based View: The Potential for Sustained Competitive Advantage Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.