Glass Egg Digital Media Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Glass Egg Digital Media case study

At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Glass Egg Digital Media case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by David B. Godes. The Glass Egg Digital Media (referred as “Egg Glass” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Sales & Marketing. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Marketing, Product development, Sales, Supply chain.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment

Case Description of Glass Egg Digital Media Case Study

Glass Egg is an outsource games development firm in Vietnam. They are able to offer brand-name publishers -- Microsoft EA,Atari -- significant cost savings in the development of art assets for their video games. However, the firm's management find themselves at a point at which they feel they need to make a strategic decision that will enable Glass Egg to grow more substantially and more quickly. They are evaluating three possible directions including expanding the sales force, expanding the scope of art development services they offer and, more radically, going into the games publishing business themselves. Besides offering a picture of an interesting firm in a growing, dynamic country and business, the case allows for an exploration of two important general themes: 1.) Assessing alternative growth strategies. When should one pursue "more of the same" business vs. offering another product vs. looking for new customers? When is it better to develop an entirely different line of business with different customers and different products? (2) What are the differences between marketing to businesses vs. marketing to consumers? Since one of the options the firm is considering involves a consumer product -- online game development -- the case supports a discussion about the important differences, not only in terms of the nature of the buying process and buying center but also in terms of the vastly different organizational resources and structures that are needed in each.

Case Authors : David B. Godes

Topic : Sales & Marketing

Related Areas : Marketing, Product development, Sales, Supply chain

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Glass Egg Digital Media Case Study

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10002080) -10002080 - -
Year 1 3461893 -6540187 3461893 0.9434 3265937
Year 2 3962223 -2577964 7424116 0.89 3526364
Year 3 3954552 1376588 11378668 0.8396 3320318
Year 4 3241750 4618338 14620418 0.7921 2567770
TOTAL 14620418 12680389

The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2678309

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting

What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.

Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting

There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Net Present Value
2. Payback Period
3. Profitability Index
4. Internal Rate of Return

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Egg Glass shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.
2. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Egg Glass have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.

Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Glass Egg Digital Media

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Sales & Marketing Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Egg Glass often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Egg Glass needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10002080) -10002080 - -
Year 1 3461893 -6540187 3461893 0.8696 3010342
Year 2 3962223 -2577964 7424116 0.7561 2996010
Year 3 3954552 1376588 11378668 0.6575 2600182
Year 4 3241750 4618338 14620418 0.5718 1853481
TOTAL 10460015

The Net NPV after 4 years is 457935

(10460015 - 10002080 )

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%

If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10002080) -10002080 - -
Year 1 3461893 -6540187 3461893 0.8333 2884911
Year 2 3962223 -2577964 7424116 0.6944 2751544
Year 3 3954552 1376588 11378668 0.5787 2288514
Year 4 3241750 4618338 14620418 0.4823 1563344
TOTAL 9488312

The Net NPV after 4 years is -513768

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9488312 - 10002080 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Egg Glass to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.

Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Egg Glass has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Egg Glass can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Egg Glass, then the stock price of the Egg Glass should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Egg Glass should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.

References & Further Readings

David B. Godes (2018), "Glass Egg Digital Media Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.