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NPV: Stanford University: Implementing FASB Statements 116 and 117 Net Present Value Case Analysis
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Stanford University: Implementing FASB Statements 116 and 117 Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Stanford University: Implementing FASB Statements 116 and 117 case study


At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Stanford University: Implementing FASB Statements 116 and 117 case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Christopher Canellos, David W. Hoyt. The Stanford University: Implementing FASB Statements 116 and 117 (referred as “116 117” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Finance & Accounting. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Financial management.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment




Case Description of Stanford University: Implementing FASB Statements 116 and 117 Case Study


In 1993, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued two statements--Number 116: Accounting for Contributions Received and Contributions Made and Number 117: Financial Statements of Not-for-Profit Organizations. These statements required significant changes to the financial statements issued by nonprofit organizations. This case discusses changes in the context of Stanford University, a private, not-for-profit educational institution. Discusses financial reporting prior to FAS 116 and 117, the objectives of FAS 116 and 117, and their implementation by Stanford. Prepares students for a discussion of nonprofit financial reporting, fund accounting, donor-imposed restrictions, the various stakeholders, and the advantages or disadvantages of financial statements prepared under the provisions of FAS 116 and 117.


Case Authors : Christopher Canellos, David W. Hoyt

Topic : Finance & Accounting

Related Areas : Financial management




Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Stanford University: Implementing FASB Statements 116 and 117 Case Study


Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10019553) -10019553 - -
Year 1 3458470 -6561083 3458470 0.9434 3262708
Year 2 3971021 -2590062 7429491 0.89 3534195
Year 3 3957288 1367226 11386779 0.8396 3322615
Year 4 3240525 4607751 14627304 0.7921 2566799
TOTAL 14627304 12686317


The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2666764

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting


What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.




Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting


There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Profitability Index
2. Internal Rate of Return
3. Net Present Value
4. Payback Period

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. 116 117 shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.
2. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of 116 117 have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.




Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Stanford University: Implementing FASB Statements 116 and 117

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Finance & Accounting Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at 116 117 often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at 116 117 needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10019553) -10019553 - -
Year 1 3458470 -6561083 3458470 0.8696 3007365
Year 2 3971021 -2590062 7429491 0.7561 3002662
Year 3 3957288 1367226 11386779 0.6575 2601981
Year 4 3240525 4607751 14627304 0.5718 1852781
TOTAL 10464789


The Net NPV after 4 years is 445236

(10464789 - 10019553 )






Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%


If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10019553) -10019553 - -
Year 1 3458470 -6561083 3458470 0.8333 2882058
Year 2 3971021 -2590062 7429491 0.6944 2757653
Year 3 3957288 1367226 11386779 0.5787 2290097
Year 4 3240525 4607751 14627304 0.4823 1562753
TOTAL 9492562


The Net NPV after 4 years is -526991

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9492562 - 10019553 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of 116 117 to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.



Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of 116 117 has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at 116 117 can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at 116 117, then the stock price of the 116 117 should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at 116 117 should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.




References & Further Readings

Christopher Canellos, David W. Hoyt (2018), "Stanford University: Implementing FASB Statements 116 and 117 Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.