ADP - GSI: The Integration Challenge Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for ADP - GSI: The Integration Challenge case study

At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. ADP - GSI: The Integration Challenge case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Yves L. Doz, Maurizio Zollo, Jeanne Larson. The ADP - GSI: The Integration Challenge (referred as “Adp Gsi” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Strategy & Execution. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Mergers & acquisitions.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment

Case Description of ADP - GSI: The Integration Challenge Case Study

ADP signs its largest acquisition deal in history, to purchase GSI in August 1995. If the divergence of cultures in both companies isn't enough -- ADP management being used to tight controls and double-digit growth and GSI management groomed to run their own show in spite of recent poor financial results -- there are tremendous differences in operations across functional areas to resolve. Both companies have developed and positioned their unique product offerings to serve different market segments in distinct geographies. Consequently, the Sales and Customer Service organizations are also very different, with scopes and profiles that correspond to their own markets. Financial reporting practices are also divergent, for the most part due to country legislation. Human Resource practices are polar opposites. The reader is asked to take the position of Philippe Gluntz, the new President of ADP Europe, straddling the ocean to manage the post-acquisition process. The Expanded Version includes an overview of GSI and ADP, allowing the reader to address the integration challenge without reading the previous cases in the series.

Case Authors : Yves L. Doz, Maurizio Zollo, Jeanne Larson

Topic : Strategy & Execution

Related Areas : Mergers & acquisitions

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for ADP - GSI: The Integration Challenge Case Study

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10008905) -10008905 - -
Year 1 3469274 -6539631 3469274 0.9434 3272900
Year 2 3973134 -2566497 7442408 0.89 3536075
Year 3 3956040 1389543 11398448 0.8396 3321567
Year 4 3234929 4624472 14633377 0.7921 2562367
TOTAL 14633377 12692909

The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2684004

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting

What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.

Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting

There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Internal Rate of Return
2. Payback Period
3. Profitability Index
4. Net Present Value

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Adp Gsi have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.
2. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Adp Gsi shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.

Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of ADP - GSI: The Integration Challenge

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Strategy & Execution Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Adp Gsi often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Adp Gsi needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10008905) -10008905 - -
Year 1 3469274 -6539631 3469274 0.8696 3016760
Year 2 3973134 -2566497 7442408 0.7561 3004260
Year 3 3956040 1389543 11398448 0.6575 2601161
Year 4 3234929 4624472 14633377 0.5718 1849581
TOTAL 10471762

The Net NPV after 4 years is 462857

(10471762 - 10008905 )

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%

If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10008905) -10008905 - -
Year 1 3469274 -6539631 3469274 0.8333 2891062
Year 2 3973134 -2566497 7442408 0.6944 2759121
Year 3 3956040 1389543 11398448 0.5787 2289375
Year 4 3234929 4624472 14633377 0.4823 1560054
TOTAL 9499612

The Net NPV after 4 years is -509293

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9499612 - 10008905 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Adp Gsi to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.

Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Adp Gsi has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Adp Gsi can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Adp Gsi, then the stock price of the Adp Gsi should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Adp Gsi should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.

References & Further Readings

Yves L. Doz, Maurizio Zollo, Jeanne Larson (2018), "ADP - GSI: The Integration Challenge Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.