New New HP in 2004 (B): Winning in the Core Businesses Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for New New HP in 2004 (B): Winning in the Core Businesses case study

At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. New New HP in 2004 (B): Winning in the Core Businesses case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Robert A. Burgelman, Philip Meza. The New New HP in 2004 (B): Winning in the Core Businesses (referred as “Hp Printing” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Strategy & Execution. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Organizational structure, Technology.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment

Case Description of New New HP in 2004 (B): Winning in the Core Businesses Case Study

Prior to its merger with Compaq, HP depended on profits from its wildly successful imaging and printing business to support the company's far less successful computer businesses. Two years after the merger, HP still relied on its printing business (albeit less heavily) for most of the company's profits. Chairman and CEO Carly Fiorina said that HP was a "systems business," not just an imaging and printing company, and she thought the merger helped HP become more competitive in the areas of personal computers, enterprise computing, and services. In mid-2004, the challenges facing each of HP's core businesses warranted the serious attention of top management; in particular, the issue of balancing HP's horizontal (cross-business) and vertical (multibusiness) strategic considerations would have to rank high on the agenda.

Case Authors : Robert A. Burgelman, Philip Meza

Topic : Strategy & Execution

Related Areas : Organizational structure, Technology

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for New New HP in 2004 (B): Winning in the Core Businesses Case Study

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10017535) -10017535 - -
Year 1 3450347 -6567188 3450347 0.9434 3255044
Year 2 3982718 -2584470 7433065 0.89 3544605
Year 3 3949383 1364913 11382448 0.8396 3315978
Year 4 3233237 4598150 14615685 0.7921 2561027
TOTAL 14615685 12676654

The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2659119

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting

What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.

Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting

There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Net Present Value
2. Internal Rate of Return
3. Profitability Index
4. Payback Period

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Hp Printing shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.
2. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Hp Printing have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.

Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of New New HP in 2004 (B): Winning in the Core Businesses

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Strategy & Execution Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Hp Printing often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Hp Printing needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10017535) -10017535 - -
Year 1 3450347 -6567188 3450347 0.8696 3000302
Year 2 3982718 -2584470 7433065 0.7561 3011507
Year 3 3949383 1364913 11382448 0.6575 2596783
Year 4 3233237 4598150 14615685 0.5718 1848614
TOTAL 10457206

The Net NPV after 4 years is 439671

(10457206 - 10017535 )

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%

If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10017535) -10017535 - -
Year 1 3450347 -6567188 3450347 0.8333 2875289
Year 2 3982718 -2584470 7433065 0.6944 2765776
Year 3 3949383 1364913 11382448 0.5787 2285523
Year 4 3233237 4598150 14615685 0.4823 1559239
TOTAL 9485827

The Net NPV after 4 years is -531708

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9485827 - 10017535 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Hp Printing to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.

Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Hp Printing has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Hp Printing can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Hp Printing, then the stock price of the Hp Printing should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Hp Printing should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.

References & Further Readings

Robert A. Burgelman, Philip Meza (2018), "New New HP in 2004 (B): Winning in the Core Businesses Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.