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Rebranding Godiva: The Yildiz Strategy Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Rebranding Godiva: The Yildiz Strategy case study


At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Rebranding Godiva: The Yildiz Strategy case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Rohit Deshpande, Esel Cekin. The Rebranding Godiva: The Yildiz Strategy (referred as “Godiva Yildiz” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Strategy & Execution. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Change management, Emerging markets, Innovation, Mergers & acquisitions.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment




Case Description of Rebranding Godiva: The Yildiz Strategy Case Study


This case concerns Yildiz Holding's acquisition of Godiva Chocolatier from its previous owner, Campbell Soup, and its strategy in preserving Godiva's "made in Belgium" brand position. Provenance Paradox, a problem faced by companies in emerging countries trying to establish their brands in developed markets, had not become a problem for Yildiz Holding. After patiently waiting five years and seeing the company not performing as desired, Murat A?lker, the chairman of Yildiz, decides to change the management structure and encourage rethinking brand positioning, channels, and communications in the U.S. market. How was the Godiva brand affected by the execution problems of previous management? Why did Godiva succeed in international markets while it declined in the U.S.? What were the implications of the change in marketing strategy to Godiva's brand image?


Case Authors : Rohit Deshpande, Esel Cekin

Topic : Strategy & Execution

Related Areas : Change management, Emerging markets, Innovation, Mergers & acquisitions




Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Rebranding Godiva: The Yildiz Strategy Case Study


Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10029654) -10029654 - -
Year 1 3461678 -6567976 3461678 0.9434 3265734
Year 2 3955297 -2612679 7416975 0.89 3520200
Year 3 3941988 1329309 11358963 0.8396 3309769
Year 4 3248248 4577557 14607211 0.7921 2572917
TOTAL 14607211 12668620


The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2638966

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting


What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.




Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting


There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Profitability Index
2. Payback Period
3. Net Present Value
4. Internal Rate of Return

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Godiva Yildiz have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.
2. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Godiva Yildiz shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.




Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Rebranding Godiva: The Yildiz Strategy

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Strategy & Execution Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Godiva Yildiz often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Godiva Yildiz needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10029654) -10029654 - -
Year 1 3461678 -6567976 3461678 0.8696 3010155
Year 2 3955297 -2612679 7416975 0.7561 2990773
Year 3 3941988 1329309 11358963 0.6575 2591921
Year 4 3248248 4577557 14607211 0.5718 1857196
TOTAL 10450045


The Net NPV after 4 years is 420391

(10450045 - 10029654 )






Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%


If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10029654) -10029654 - -
Year 1 3461678 -6567976 3461678 0.8333 2884732
Year 2 3955297 -2612679 7416975 0.6944 2746734
Year 3 3941988 1329309 11358963 0.5787 2281243
Year 4 3248248 4577557 14607211 0.4823 1566478
TOTAL 9479186


The Net NPV after 4 years is -550468

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9479186 - 10029654 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Godiva Yildiz to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.



Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Godiva Yildiz has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Godiva Yildiz can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Godiva Yildiz, then the stock price of the Godiva Yildiz should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Godiva Yildiz should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.




References & Further Readings

Rohit Deshpande, Esel Cekin (2018), "Rebranding Godiva: The Yildiz Strategy Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.