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RFID at the METRO Group Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for RFID at the METRO Group case study


At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. RFID at the METRO Group case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Zeynep Ton, Vincent Dessain, Monika Stachowiak-Joulain. The RFID at the METRO Group (referred as “Rfid Metro” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Technology & Operations. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Supply chain, Technology.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment




Case Description of RFID at the METRO Group Case Study


Introduces radio frequency identification (RFID) as the next generation of automatic identification technologies that is expected to improve the performance of retail supply chains through reduced shrink, increased product availability, and improved labor productivity. Showcases the implementation of the technology by the METRO Group, the world's third-largest retailer. Places students in the position of Dr. Gerd Wolfram, managing director of METRO's internal IT service group, and Zygmunt Mierdorf, the company's chief information officer, who, in mid-2005, evaluate the results of the RFID rollout and decide on the next stage in the implementation.


Case Authors : Zeynep Ton, Vincent Dessain, Monika Stachowiak-Joulain

Topic : Technology & Operations

Related Areas : Supply chain, Technology




Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for RFID at the METRO Group Case Study


Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10020222) -10020222 - -
Year 1 3454801 -6565421 3454801 0.9434 3259246
Year 2 3969635 -2595786 7424436 0.89 3532961
Year 3 3967527 1371741 11391963 0.8396 3331212
Year 4 3234023 4605764 14625986 0.7921 2561649
TOTAL 14625986 12685069


The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2664847

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting


What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.




Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting


There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Profitability Index
2. Net Present Value
3. Internal Rate of Return
4. Payback Period

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Rfid Metro shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.
2. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Rfid Metro have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.




Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of RFID at the METRO Group

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Technology & Operations Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Rfid Metro often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Rfid Metro needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10020222) -10020222 - -
Year 1 3454801 -6565421 3454801 0.8696 3004175
Year 2 3969635 -2595786 7424436 0.7561 3001614
Year 3 3967527 1371741 11391963 0.6575 2608713
Year 4 3234023 4605764 14625986 0.5718 1849063
TOTAL 10463566


The Net NPV after 4 years is 443344

(10463566 - 10020222 )






Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%


If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10020222) -10020222 - -
Year 1 3454801 -6565421 3454801 0.8333 2879001
Year 2 3969635 -2595786 7424436 0.6944 2756691
Year 3 3967527 1371741 11391963 0.5787 2296023
Year 4 3234023 4605764 14625986 0.4823 1559618
TOTAL 9491332


The Net NPV after 4 years is -528890

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9491332 - 10020222 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Rfid Metro to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.



Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Rfid Metro has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Rfid Metro can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Rfid Metro, then the stock price of the Rfid Metro should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Rfid Metro should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.




References & Further Readings

Zeynep Ton, Vincent Dessain, Monika Stachowiak-Joulain (2018), "RFID at the METRO Group Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.