×




Lebanon Mountain Trail Association: Aiming for Sustainability Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Lebanon Mountain Trail Association: Aiming for Sustainability case study


At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Lebanon Mountain Trail Association: Aiming for Sustainability case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Mira Thoumy, Omar Sakr. The Lebanon Mountain Trail Association: Aiming for Sustainability (referred as “Trail Association” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Strategy & Execution. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Corporate governance, Sustainability.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment




Case Description of Lebanon Mountain Trail Association: Aiming for Sustainability Case Study


In December 2016, the president of the Lebanon Mountain Trail Association (LMTA) was getting ready for a board of directors meeting during which the members had to vote on whether to hire an executive director-a first for the association. If hired, the association would face a new financial hurdle that could threaten its sustainability. The LMTA was a non-profit mountain trail association that was implementing socially responsible tourism practices on and around a 470 kilometre trail. The association was struggling to sustain itself financially, to protect and maintain the trail, and to secure the succession of its board. Mira Thoumy is affiliated with Notre Dame University-Louaize. Omar Sakr is affiliated with Notre Dame University-Louaize.


Case Authors : Mira Thoumy, Omar Sakr

Topic : Strategy & Execution

Related Areas : Corporate governance, Sustainability




Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Lebanon Mountain Trail Association: Aiming for Sustainability Case Study


Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10013145) -10013145 - -
Year 1 3458776 -6554369 3458776 0.9434 3262996
Year 2 3957215 -2597154 7415991 0.89 3521907
Year 3 3942893 1345739 11358884 0.8396 3310529
Year 4 3249976 4595715 14608860 0.7921 2574285
TOTAL 14608860 12669718


The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2656573

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting


What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.




Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting


There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Payback Period
2. Profitability Index
3. Internal Rate of Return
4. Net Present Value

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Trail Association shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.
2. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Trail Association have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.




Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Lebanon Mountain Trail Association: Aiming for Sustainability

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Strategy & Execution Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Trail Association often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Trail Association needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10013145) -10013145 - -
Year 1 3458776 -6554369 3458776 0.8696 3007631
Year 2 3957215 -2597154 7415991 0.7561 2992223
Year 3 3942893 1345739 11358884 0.6575 2592516
Year 4 3249976 4595715 14608860 0.5718 1858184
TOTAL 10450555


The Net NPV after 4 years is 437410

(10450555 - 10013145 )






Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%


If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10013145) -10013145 - -
Year 1 3458776 -6554369 3458776 0.8333 2882313
Year 2 3957215 -2597154 7415991 0.6944 2748066
Year 3 3942893 1345739 11358884 0.5787 2281767
Year 4 3249976 4595715 14608860 0.4823 1567311
TOTAL 9479457


The Net NPV after 4 years is -533688

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9479457 - 10013145 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Trail Association to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.



Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Trail Association has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Trail Association can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Trail Association, then the stock price of the Trail Association should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Trail Association should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.




References & Further Readings

Mira Thoumy, Omar Sakr (2018), "Lebanon Mountain Trail Association: Aiming for Sustainability Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.