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Health Care Manufacturing Inc. Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Health Care Manufacturing Inc. case study


At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Health Care Manufacturing Inc. case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by James E. Hatch, Manpreet Hora. The Health Care Manufacturing Inc. (referred as “Wall Banker” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Finance & Accounting. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Mergers & acquisitions.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment




Case Description of Health Care Manufacturing Inc. Case Study


A Chinese investment banker is performing due diligence on the potential acquisition of a Canadian manufacturer of health care products. Among her tasks is the need to put a value on the acquisition target. Her client is an independently wealthy investor and chair of Great Wall Holdings (Great Wall). Great Wall was a privately held conglomerate with interests in a wide range of companies. The investment banker is interested in diversifying his holdings outside of China and was especially interested in gaining a modest foothold in the manufacture of health care products in North America.


Case Authors : James E. Hatch, Manpreet Hora

Topic : Finance & Accounting

Related Areas : Mergers & acquisitions




Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Health Care Manufacturing Inc. Case Study


Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10028061) -10028061 - -
Year 1 3459747 -6568314 3459747 0.9434 3263912
Year 2 3963761 -2604553 7423508 0.89 3527733
Year 3 3946893 1342340 11370401 0.8396 3313887
Year 4 3240081 4582421 14610482 0.7921 2566448
TOTAL 14610482 12671981


The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2643920

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting


What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.




Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting


There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Payback Period
2. Net Present Value
3. Profitability Index
4. Internal Rate of Return

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Wall Banker have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.
2. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Wall Banker shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.




Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Health Care Manufacturing Inc.

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Finance & Accounting Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Wall Banker often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Wall Banker needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10028061) -10028061 - -
Year 1 3459747 -6568314 3459747 0.8696 3008476
Year 2 3963761 -2604553 7423508 0.7561 2997173
Year 3 3946893 1342340 11370401 0.6575 2595146
Year 4 3240081 4582421 14610482 0.5718 1852527
TOTAL 10453321


The Net NPV after 4 years is 425260

(10453321 - 10028061 )






Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%


If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10028061) -10028061 - -
Year 1 3459747 -6568314 3459747 0.8333 2883123
Year 2 3963761 -2604553 7423508 0.6944 2752612
Year 3 3946893 1342340 11370401 0.5787 2284082
Year 4 3240081 4582421 14610482 0.4823 1562539
TOTAL 9482355


The Net NPV after 4 years is -545706

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9482355 - 10028061 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Wall Banker to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.



Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Wall Banker has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Wall Banker can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Wall Banker, then the stock price of the Wall Banker should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Wall Banker should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.




References & Further Readings

James E. Hatch, Manpreet Hora (2018), "Health Care Manufacturing Inc. Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.