Forty Chinese Police to Five-Star Bali Conference: Scam? Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Forty Chinese Police to Five-Star Bali Conference: Scam? case study

At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Forty Chinese Police to Five-Star Bali Conference: Scam? case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Stephen Grainger. The Forty Chinese Police to Five-Star Bali Conference: Scam? (referred as “Police Bali” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Global Business. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, .

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment

Case Description of Forty Chinese Police to Five-Star Bali Conference: Scam? Case Study

In 2012, a real estate entrepreneur and his long-time friend and former neighbour, a police director, had enjoyed the profits of "guanxi"-a bilateral flow of personal favours-for many years. The use of guanxi in China had long been a core component of successful and sometimes illegal business. However, China's new president had recently created a tough anti-corruption Disciplinary Committee. As a result, many respected citizens who had previously profited from corrupt practices were being exposed, prosecuted, and imprisoned. News was leaked about the city's entire police force having enjoyed a six-day vacation in Bali at the expense of the police budget. The real estate entrepreneur and the police director were going to be questioned about their role in arranging this vacation. What should they do? Could they escape the consequences of their questionable business practices, or were they headed for a future in prison? Stephen Grainger is affiliated with Edith Cowan University.

Case Authors : Stephen Grainger

Topic : Global Business

Related Areas :

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Forty Chinese Police to Five-Star Bali Conference: Scam? Case Study

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10023435) -10023435 - -
Year 1 3472389 -6551046 3472389 0.9434 3275839
Year 2 3956265 -2594781 7428654 0.89 3521062
Year 3 3958976 1364195 11387630 0.8396 3324033
Year 4 3233227 4597422 14620857 0.7921 2561019
TOTAL 14620857 12681952

The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2658517

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting

What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.

Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting

There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Internal Rate of Return
2. Profitability Index
3. Net Present Value
4. Payback Period

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Police Bali have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.
2. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Police Bali shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.

Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Forty Chinese Police to Five-Star Bali Conference: Scam?

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Global Business Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Police Bali often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Police Bali needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10023435) -10023435 - -
Year 1 3472389 -6551046 3472389 0.8696 3019469
Year 2 3956265 -2594781 7428654 0.7561 2991505
Year 3 3958976 1364195 11387630 0.6575 2603091
Year 4 3233227 4597422 14620857 0.5718 1848608
TOTAL 10462672

The Net NPV after 4 years is 439237

(10462672 - 10023435 )

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%

If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10023435) -10023435 - -
Year 1 3472389 -6551046 3472389 0.8333 2893658
Year 2 3956265 -2594781 7428654 0.6944 2747406
Year 3 3958976 1364195 11387630 0.5787 2291074
Year 4 3233227 4597422 14620857 0.4823 1559234
TOTAL 9491372

The Net NPV after 4 years is -532063

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9491372 - 10023435 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Police Bali to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.

Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Police Bali has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Police Bali can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Police Bali, then the stock price of the Police Bali should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Police Bali should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.

Negotiation Strategy of Forty Chinese Police to Five-Star Bali Conference: Scam?

References & Further Readings

Stephen Grainger (2018), "Forty Chinese Police to Five-Star Bali Conference: Scam? Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.