TYCO: M&A Machine Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for TYCO: M&A Machine case study

At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. TYCO: M&A Machine case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Maureen McNichols, Nathan T. Blair. The TYCO: M&A Machine (referred as “Tyco Tyco's” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Finance & Accounting. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Financial management, Mergers & acquisitions.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment

Case Description of TYCO: M&A Machine Case Study

Dennis Kozlowski took over the helm of Tyco International, Ltd. (Tyco) in 1992. By the end of its 2001 fiscal year, Kozlowski's Tyco had made over 100 announced acquisitions with total revenues in excess of $30 billion (Exhibit 1). Kozlowski's strategy, called "growth on growth," fueled Tyco's aggressive approach toward acquisitions and took the company from just over $3 billion of sales in 1992 to $36 billion in 2001. Investors supported Tyco's strategy as evidenced by the tenfold increase in Tyco's stock price over the same period (Exhibit 2). Analysts also lauded Tyco, issuing reports with titles like, "The Proof Is in the Great Numbers! Buy." But was the proof really there? This case describes Tyco Corporation's mergers and acquisitions activity from its founding through the Kozlowski era. In particular, it focuses on accounting practices used in concert with M&A activity that served to manipulate Tyco's earnings. It goes into detail regarding the CIT acquisition.

Case Authors : Maureen McNichols, Nathan T. Blair

Topic : Finance & Accounting

Related Areas : Financial management, Mergers & acquisitions

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for TYCO: M&A Machine Case Study

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10023751) -10023751 - -
Year 1 3470671 -6553080 3470671 0.9434 3274218
Year 2 3975100 -2577980 7445771 0.89 3537825
Year 3 3964544 1386564 11410315 0.8396 3328708
Year 4 3242918 4629482 14653233 0.7921 2568695
TOTAL 14653233 12709445

The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2685694

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting

What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.

Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting

There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Payback Period
2. Net Present Value
3. Profitability Index
4. Internal Rate of Return

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Tyco Tyco's have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.
2. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Tyco Tyco's shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.

Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of TYCO: M&A Machine

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Finance & Accounting Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Tyco Tyco's often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Tyco Tyco's needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10023751) -10023751 - -
Year 1 3470671 -6553080 3470671 0.8696 3017975
Year 2 3975100 -2577980 7445771 0.7561 3005747
Year 3 3964544 1386564 11410315 0.6575 2606752
Year 4 3242918 4629482 14653233 0.5718 1854149
TOTAL 10484622

The Net NPV after 4 years is 460871

(10484622 - 10023751 )

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%

If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10023751) -10023751 - -
Year 1 3470671 -6553080 3470671 0.8333 2892226
Year 2 3975100 -2577980 7445771 0.6944 2760486
Year 3 3964544 1386564 11410315 0.5787 2294296
Year 4 3242918 4629482 14653233 0.4823 1563907
TOTAL 9510915

The Net NPV after 4 years is -512836

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9510915 - 10023751 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Tyco Tyco's to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.

Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Tyco Tyco's has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Tyco Tyco's can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Tyco Tyco's, then the stock price of the Tyco Tyco's should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Tyco Tyco's should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.

References & Further Readings

Maureen McNichols, Nathan T. Blair (2018), "TYCO: M&A Machine Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.