Fortescue Metals Group: Becoming "The New Force in Iron Ore" Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Fortescue Metals Group: Becoming "The New Force in Iron Ore" case study

At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Fortescue Metals Group: Becoming "The New Force in Iron Ore" case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by George Foster, David W. Hoyt. The Fortescue Metals Group: Becoming "The New Force in Iron Ore" (referred as “Ore Fortescue” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Innovation & Entrepreneurship. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, International business, Mergers & acquisitions.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment

Case Description of Fortescue Metals Group: Becoming "The New Force in Iron Ore" Case Study

In 2003, Andrew Forrest planned to enter the iron ore industry, which was highly capital intensive, consolidating, and dominated by three companies. Less than five years later, his start-up, Fortescue Metals Group, loaded its first ore onto a ship bound for China. In those five years, the Western Australia company raised more than US$2.5 billion, acquired more than 1 billion metric tons of iron ore reserves, built a mine and processing facility, 256 km of railway, and a port for large ore-carrying ships. Fortescue was profitable in its first full year of production, and expanding its capacity. This case describes Fortescue's early years, the challenges the company faced, and the ways it met those challenges. It also describes challenges facing the company in October 2010, as it looks to the future.

Case Authors : George Foster, David W. Hoyt

Topic : Innovation & Entrepreneurship

Related Areas : International business, Mergers & acquisitions

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Fortescue Metals Group: Becoming "The New Force in Iron Ore" Case Study

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10011939) -10011939 - -
Year 1 3445863 -6566076 3445863 0.9434 3250814
Year 2 3970073 -2596003 7415936 0.89 3533351
Year 3 3954700 1358697 11370636 0.8396 3320442
Year 4 3245618 4604315 14616254 0.7921 2570833
TOTAL 14616254 12675441

The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2663502

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting

What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.

Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting

There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Payback Period
2. Net Present Value
3. Internal Rate of Return
4. Profitability Index

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Ore Fortescue have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.
2. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Ore Fortescue shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.

Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Fortescue Metals Group: Becoming "The New Force in Iron Ore"

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Innovation & Entrepreneurship Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Ore Fortescue often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Ore Fortescue needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10011939) -10011939 - -
Year 1 3445863 -6566076 3445863 0.8696 2996403
Year 2 3970073 -2596003 7415936 0.7561 3001946
Year 3 3954700 1358697 11370636 0.6575 2600279
Year 4 3245618 4604315 14616254 0.5718 1855693
TOTAL 10454320

The Net NPV after 4 years is 442381

(10454320 - 10011939 )

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%

If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10011939) -10011939 - -
Year 1 3445863 -6566076 3445863 0.8333 2871553
Year 2 3970073 -2596003 7415936 0.6944 2756995
Year 3 3954700 1358697 11370636 0.5787 2288600
Year 4 3245618 4604315 14616254 0.4823 1565209
TOTAL 9482356

The Net NPV after 4 years is -529583

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9482356 - 10011939 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Ore Fortescue to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.

Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Ore Fortescue has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Ore Fortescue can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Ore Fortescue, then the stock price of the Ore Fortescue should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Ore Fortescue should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.

References & Further Readings

George Foster, David W. Hoyt (2018), "Fortescue Metals Group: Becoming "The New Force in Iron Ore" Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.