Binnj on the Apple iPad Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Binnj on the Apple iPad case study

At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Binnj on the Apple iPad case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Derrick Neufeld, Ken Mark. The Binnj on the Apple iPad (referred as “Ipad Apple” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Innovation & Entrepreneurship. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, IT.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment

Case Description of Binnj on the Apple iPad Case Study

In this dialogue-styled situation, Binnj's CEO has assembled a team of people for a 100-day "science experiment" to determine whether a new high-tech business venture is worth pursuing. He is focused on an untapped market - a new kind of restaurant menu service built on the Apple iPad platform. Members of the team are excited and have been furiously working on the project while retaining their full-time jobs. They have developed a prototype of the technology and business offering, pitched the idea to several clients, and generated significant interest. The case is set at the end of the first 100 days, when the CEO must decide on the next steps.This case introduces students to information technology entrepreneurship, technology development approaches, service pricing issues, virtual project management techniques and tools, brainstorming revenue generation opportunities, and the challenges of prioritizing decisions.

Case Authors : Derrick Neufeld, Ken Mark

Topic : Innovation & Entrepreneurship

Related Areas : IT

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Binnj on the Apple iPad Case Study

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10005199) -10005199 - -
Year 1 3462345 -6542854 3462345 0.9434 3266363
Year 2 3972812 -2570042 7435157 0.89 3535789
Year 3 3948834 1378792 11383991 0.8396 3315517
Year 4 3246541 4625333 14630532 0.7921 2571565
TOTAL 14630532 12689233

The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2684034

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting

What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.

Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting

There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Internal Rate of Return
2. Profitability Index
3. Payback Period
4. Net Present Value

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Ipad Apple shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.
2. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Ipad Apple have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.

Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Binnj on the Apple iPad

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Innovation & Entrepreneurship Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Ipad Apple often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Ipad Apple needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10005199) -10005199 - -
Year 1 3462345 -6542854 3462345 0.8696 3010735
Year 2 3972812 -2570042 7435157 0.7561 3004017
Year 3 3948834 1378792 11383991 0.6575 2596422
Year 4 3246541 4625333 14630532 0.5718 1856220
TOTAL 10467394

The Net NPV after 4 years is 462195

(10467394 - 10005199 )

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%

If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10005199) -10005199 - -
Year 1 3462345 -6542854 3462345 0.8333 2885288
Year 2 3972812 -2570042 7435157 0.6944 2758897
Year 3 3948834 1378792 11383991 0.5787 2285205
Year 4 3246541 4625333 14630532 0.4823 1565654
TOTAL 9495044

The Net NPV after 4 years is -510155

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9495044 - 10005199 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Ipad Apple to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.

Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Ipad Apple has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Ipad Apple can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Ipad Apple, then the stock price of the Ipad Apple should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Ipad Apple should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.

References & Further Readings

Derrick Neufeld, Ken Mark (2018), "Binnj on the Apple iPad Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.