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TerraMai: Reclaimed Woods From Around the World, Video (DVD) Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for TerraMai: Reclaimed Woods From Around the World, Video (DVD) case study


At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. TerraMai: Reclaimed Woods From Around the World, Video (DVD) case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Chuck Holloway, Joshua Spitzer. The TerraMai: Reclaimed Woods From Around the World, Video (DVD) (referred as “Terramai Reclaimed” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Innovation & Entrepreneurship. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Joint ventures, Sales, Sustainability.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment




Case Description of TerraMai: Reclaimed Woods From Around the World, Video (DVD) Case Study


TerraMai: Reclaimed Woods from Around the World follows the business ventures of former river guides Erika Carpenter and Richard McFarland in the early days of the reclaimed wood industry. The TerraMai Video Supplement consists of the following four segments: Strategy & History: Erika Carpenter, TerraMai Cofounder, provides a history of the company and discusses TerraMai's competitive advantages: providing value added services in house and expertise in the lumber and reclaimed wood businesses. Looking to the future, TerraMai is aiming to be an industry leader by productizing the business and continuing to differentiate itself through strategic marketing. Lumber Yard: Richard MacFarland, TerraMai Confounder, discusses the operations of the lumber yard and why the company is diversifying its sources. TerraMai provides value by supplying hard to find dimensions and providing what MacFarland calls a "hand made product." Direct Sales: Danny Shelburne and Robert Haas, TerraMai sales associates, discuss how the sales department works and distinctions among types of customers. Associates need to be knowledgeable about all products as the organization has no division between products, types of customers, or geographic zones. The Chairman's Perspective: Ken Westrick, Chairman of TerraMai, discusses his role of bringing the business side to the company. Westrick builds on the years of technical experience that TerraMai founders have by bringing professional management, a vision for building the company into something big, and the drive to be leaders in the industry.


Case Authors : Chuck Holloway, Joshua Spitzer

Topic : Innovation & Entrepreneurship

Related Areas : Joint ventures, Sales, Sustainability




Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for TerraMai: Reclaimed Woods From Around the World, Video (DVD) Case Study


Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10016023) -10016023 - -
Year 1 3466417 -6549606 3466417 0.9434 3270205
Year 2 3961301 -2588305 7427718 0.89 3525544
Year 3 3966109 1377804 11393827 0.8396 3330022
Year 4 3235690 4613494 14629517 0.7921 2562970
TOTAL 14629517 12688740


The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2672717

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting


What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.




Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting


There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Internal Rate of Return
2. Profitability Index
3. Payback Period
4. Net Present Value

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Terramai Reclaimed shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.
2. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Terramai Reclaimed have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.




Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of TerraMai: Reclaimed Woods From Around the World, Video (DVD)

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Innovation & Entrepreneurship Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Terramai Reclaimed often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Terramai Reclaimed needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10016023) -10016023 - -
Year 1 3466417 -6549606 3466417 0.8696 3014276
Year 2 3961301 -2588305 7427718 0.7561 2995313
Year 3 3966109 1377804 11393827 0.6575 2607781
Year 4 3235690 4613494 14629517 0.5718 1850016
TOTAL 10467386


The Net NPV after 4 years is 451363

(10467386 - 10016023 )






Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%


If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10016023) -10016023 - -
Year 1 3466417 -6549606 3466417 0.8333 2888681
Year 2 3961301 -2588305 7427718 0.6944 2750903
Year 3 3966109 1377804 11393827 0.5787 2295202
Year 4 3235690 4613494 14629517 0.4823 1560421
TOTAL 9495208


The Net NPV after 4 years is -520815

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9495208 - 10016023 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Terramai Reclaimed to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.



Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Terramai Reclaimed has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Terramai Reclaimed can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Terramai Reclaimed, then the stock price of the Terramai Reclaimed should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Terramai Reclaimed should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.




References & Further Readings

Chuck Holloway, Joshua Spitzer (2018), "TerraMai: Reclaimed Woods From Around the World, Video (DVD) Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.