Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?


At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. KIPLING (A): MONKEY BUSINESS - KIPLING TRIES TO CONQUER THE WORLD case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Benoit Leleux, Kurt Verweire, Miguel Meuleman. The KIPLING (A): MONKEY BUSINESS - KIPLING TRIES TO CONQUER THE WORLD (referred as “Kipling Italian” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Leadership & Managing People. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Globalization, Marketing.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment


MAY 1991. Flying back from Venice, Paul Van de Velde thought back about the strange meeting he and Enrico Boldoni had earlier that day with a potential Italian investor. Enrico, an elegant forty something Italian, was the franchising manager for a major department store chain in Italy. He strongly believed in the Kipling brand, and after opening the first Italian Kipling shop in a mall near Rome, decided to switch into a higher gear - opening the next 25 stores! Enrico had found an investor willing to stake a great deal of money in the development of Kipling's franchise concept in Italy. After a short presentation of the Kipling concept, the man confirmed his interest in investing in Kipling with a minor Italian twist; instead of becoming a Kipling franchisee, he wanted to take over the whole company and become the franchisor! He offered to pay a??3.75 million for the company. Paul took a deep breath. Was this really what he was after when he entered the Italian market? Would he have to deal with this kind of issue when internationalizing Kipling? Did they really want to depend on this type of character for the future growth of the company? Was franchising the way to go? Learning objectives: Building a brand, globalizing a startup company, professionalizing a creative startup, modes of internationalization, financing growth, managing growth, startup teams.

Case Authors : Benoit Leleux, Kurt Verweire, Miguel Meuleman

Topic : Leadership & Managing People

Related Areas : Globalization, Marketing

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for KIPLING (A): MONKEY BUSINESS - KIPLING TRIES TO CONQUER THE WORLD Case Study

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10004377) -10004377 - -
Year 1 3445918 -6558459 3445918 0.9434 3250866
Year 2 3955706 -2602753 7401624 0.89 3520564
Year 3 3938799 1336046 11340423 0.8396 3307092
Year 4 3225645 4561691 14566068 0.7921 2555013
TOTAL 14566068 12633535

The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2629158

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting

What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.

Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting

There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Internal Rate of Return
2. Net Present Value
3. Payback Period
4. Profitability Index

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Kipling Italian have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.
2. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Kipling Italian shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.

Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of KIPLING (A): MONKEY BUSINESS - KIPLING TRIES TO CONQUER THE WORLD

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Leadership & Managing People Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Kipling Italian often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Kipling Italian needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10004377) -10004377 - -
Year 1 3445918 -6558459 3445918 0.8696 2996450
Year 2 3955706 -2602753 7401624 0.7561 2991082
Year 3 3938799 1336046 11340423 0.6575 2589824
Year 4 3225645 4561691 14566068 0.5718 1844273
TOTAL 10421630

The Net NPV after 4 years is 417253

(10421630 - 10004377 )

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%

If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10004377) -10004377 - -
Year 1 3445918 -6558459 3445918 0.8333 2871598
Year 2 3955706 -2602753 7401624 0.6944 2747018
Year 3 3938799 1336046 11340423 0.5787 2279398
Year 4 3225645 4561691 14566068 0.4823 1555577
TOTAL 9453591

The Net NPV after 4 years is -550786

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9453591 - 10004377 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Kipling Italian to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.

Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Kipling Italian has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Kipling Italian can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Kipling Italian, then the stock price of the Kipling Italian should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Kipling Italian should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.

References & Further Readings

Benoit Leleux, Kurt Verweire, Miguel Meuleman (2018), "KIPLING (A): MONKEY BUSINESS - KIPLING TRIES TO CONQUER THE WORLD Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.