Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Legality of Privatizing Public Assets: Link REIT case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by P.S. Tso, Samuel Tsang. The Legality of Privatizing Public Assets: Link REIT (referred as “Privatization Housing” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Finance & Accounting. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Economy, Financial management, IPO, Regulation.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) have proven to be popular investment vehicles in numerous countries, including the United States, Australia, Singapore, and Japan. They work by using the pooled capital of investors to purchase or manage property. Issued shares are traded on exchanges (in the same manner as stocks and mutual funds) and increase or decrease in value according to variations in the value of the trust's property portfolio, rental income, or other factors. To ease a growing budget deficit, the Hong Kong government's Housing Authority made plans to launch the territory's first publicly listed REIT, in hopes of raising much needed capital from the market. The privatization plan involved selling retail and car parking spaces within public housing estates to the incorporated Link property trust. However, the listing was held back due to the lawsuit raised by the public housing tenants, who worried the future management of the assets would not meet the needs of the existing tenants adequately. Illustrates the legal challenges facing a government and the associated impact to the key stakeholder groups in a privatization program. Also demonstrates the importance of a well-structured institutional framework in privatization.

Years | Cash Flow | Net Cash Flow | Cumulative Cash Flow |
Discount Rate @ 6 % |
Discounted Cash Flows |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Year 0 | (10027958) | -10027958 | - | - | |

Year 1 | 3472105 | -6555853 | 3472105 | 0.9434 | 3275571 |

Year 2 | 3955215 | -2600638 | 7427320 | 0.89 | 3520127 |

Year 3 | 3940221 | 1339583 | 11367541 | 0.8396 | 3308286 |

Year 4 | 3235867 | 4575450 | 14603408 | 0.7921 | 2563110 |

TOTAL | 14603408 | 12667093 |

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

What is NPV & Formula of NPV,

How it is calculated,

How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and

Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.

Capital Budgeting Approaches

There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Net Present Value

2. Profitability Index

3. Internal Rate of Return

4. Payback Period

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on
**Discounted Cash Flow **
technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Privatization Housing have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.

2. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Privatization Housing shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn

**Less** Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.

r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate.
Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.

Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.

Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.

Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.

Step 4 – Selection of the project

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Privatization Housing often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Privatization Housing needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years | Cash Flow | Net Cash Flow | Cumulative Cash Flow |
Discount Rate @ 15 % |
Discounted Cash Flows |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Year 0 | (10027958) | -10027958 | - | - | |

Year 1 | 3472105 | -6555853 | 3472105 | 0.8696 | 3019222 |

Year 2 | 3955215 | -2600638 | 7427320 | 0.7561 | 2990711 |

Year 3 | 3940221 | 1339583 | 11367541 | 0.6575 | 2590759 |

Year 4 | 3235867 | 4575450 | 14603408 | 0.5718 | 1850117 |

TOTAL | 10450809 |

(10450809 - 10027958 )

If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years | Cash Flow | Net Cash Flow | Cumulative Cash Flow |
Discount Rate @ 20 % |
Discounted Cash Flows |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Year 0 | (10027958) | -10027958 | - | - | |

Year 1 | 3472105 | -6555853 | 3472105 | 0.8333 | 2893421 |

Year 2 | 3955215 | -2600638 | 7427320 | 0.6944 | 2746677 |

Year 3 | 3940221 | 1339583 | 11367541 | 0.5787 | 2280220 |

Year 4 | 3235867 | 4575450 | 14603408 | 0.4823 | 1560507 |

TOTAL | 9480825 |

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9480825 - 10027958 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Privatization Housing to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Privatization Housing has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Privatization Housing can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Privatization Housing, then the stock price of the Privatization Housing should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Privatization Housing should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.

** P.S. Tso, Samuel Tsang (2018)**, "Legality of Privatizing Public Assets: Link REIT Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.

- UBS and Auction Rate Securities (A) Net Present Value (NPV) Case Study Solution & Analysis
- Orangia Highways (A) Net Present Value (NPV) Case Study Solution & Analysis
- Note on Lobbying and the Dodd-Frank Financial Reforms Net Present Value (NPV) Case Study Solution & Analysis
- Auditor Liability in Canada (A) Net Present Value (NPV)Case Study Solution & Analysis
- Investment Banking at Thomas Weisel Partners Net Present Value (NPV) Case Study Solution & Analysis

- Innovation at the Treasury: Treasury Inflation-Protection Securities (B) Net Present Value (NPV) Case Study Solution & Analysis
- Barclays Bank, 2008 Net Present Value (NPV) Case Study Solution & Analysis
- First National Bank Corp. (B) Net Present Value (NPV) Case Study Solution & Analysis
- Redesigning Sovereign Debt Restructuring Mechanisms Net Present Value (NPV) Case Study Solution & Analysis
- The Future of Canadian Capital Markets Net Present Value (NPV) Case Study Solution & Analysis

Feel free to connect with us if you need business research.

You can download Excel Template of Case Study Solution & Analysis of Legality of Privatizing Public Assets: Link REIT