Maruti Suzuki Limited: Industrial Relations Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Maruti Suzuki Limited: Industrial Relations case study

At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Maruti Suzuki Limited: Industrial Relations case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Rashmi Kumar Aggarwal, Harvinder Singh, Rajinder Kaur. The Maruti Suzuki Limited: Industrial Relations (referred as “Msil Strikes” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Leadership & Managing People. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Manufacturing.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment

Case Description of Maruti Suzuki Limited: Industrial Relations Case Study

In 2011, Maruti Suzuki India Limited (MSIL), India's largest car manufacturer, had three strikes in its new plant in Manesar, India. Although workers wanted recognition of a new union along with improved working conditions, MSIL insisted that workers be represented through the existing union that operated at a nearby plant. Tensions escalated to the point of violence and the matter caught the attention of national media, political parties, national trade unions, and central and state governments. Due to these strikes, MSIL struggled in terms of reputation and market share, and its component suppliers stockpiled inventory. After a series of hectic parleys and stressful episodes, the two parties reached an agreement. However, there were serious doubts as to its longevity and whether Suzuki's Japanese management style was suitable in an Indian context. Authors Rashmi Kumar Aggarwal and Harvinder Singh are affiliated with Institute of Management Technology. Author Rajinder Kaur is affiliated with Panjab University.

Case Authors : Rashmi Kumar Aggarwal, Harvinder Singh, Rajinder Kaur

Topic : Leadership & Managing People

Related Areas : Manufacturing

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Maruti Suzuki Limited: Industrial Relations Case Study

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10018683) -10018683 - -
Year 1 3458222 -6560461 3458222 0.9434 3262474
Year 2 3968873 -2591588 7427095 0.89 3532283
Year 3 3962697 1371109 11389792 0.8396 3327157
Year 4 3242449 4613558 14632241 0.7921 2568323
TOTAL 14632241 12690237

The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2671554

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting

What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.

Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting

There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Payback Period
2. Profitability Index
3. Internal Rate of Return
4. Net Present Value

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Msil Strikes have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.
2. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Msil Strikes shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.

Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Maruti Suzuki Limited: Industrial Relations

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Leadership & Managing People Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Msil Strikes often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Msil Strikes needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10018683) -10018683 - -
Year 1 3458222 -6560461 3458222 0.8696 3007150
Year 2 3968873 -2591588 7427095 0.7561 3001038
Year 3 3962697 1371109 11389792 0.6575 2605538
Year 4 3242449 4613558 14632241 0.5718 1853881
TOTAL 10467606

The Net NPV after 4 years is 448923

(10467606 - 10018683 )

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%

If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10018683) -10018683 - -
Year 1 3458222 -6560461 3458222 0.8333 2881852
Year 2 3968873 -2591588 7427095 0.6944 2756162
Year 3 3962697 1371109 11389792 0.5787 2293227
Year 4 3242449 4613558 14632241 0.4823 1563681
TOTAL 9494922

The Net NPV after 4 years is -523761

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9494922 - 10018683 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Msil Strikes to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.

Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Msil Strikes has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Msil Strikes can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Msil Strikes, then the stock price of the Msil Strikes should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Msil Strikes should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.

References & Further Readings

Rashmi Kumar Aggarwal, Harvinder Singh, Rajinder Kaur (2018), "Maruti Suzuki Limited: Industrial Relations Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.