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Orsa Group: the Challenge of Sustainable Development in the Amazon Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Orsa Group: the Challenge of Sustainable Development in the Amazon case study


At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Orsa Group: the Challenge of Sustainable Development in the Amazon case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Rosa Maria Fischer, Decio Zylbersztajn, Joao Teixeira Pires, Luciana Rocha Mendonca. The Orsa Group: the Challenge of Sustainable Development in the Amazon (referred as “Orsa Jari” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Organizational Development. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Joint ventures.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment




Case Description of Orsa Group: the Challenge of Sustainable Development in the Amazon Case Study


In 2002, the Orsa Group consisted of several business units in the pulp, paper, and packaging sector, having grossed nearly US$ 250 million that year. The Group's enterprises were: Orsa Celulose; Papel e Embalagens [Orsa Pulp, Paper and Packaging], featuring industrial plants in the states of Sao Paulo and Goias and in the Amazon; and Jari Celulose and Orsa Florestal, both located in the Jari region in the heart of the Amazon rainforest. In addition, its philosophical principle of social and environmental responsibility led the Group to create a non-profit organization, the Orsa Foundation, supported by 1% of the Group's consolidated gross sales. More than a mere social welfare action branch, the Orsa Foundation became a priority within company operations as a result of two major factors: a) Orsa was a family-owned business run by main shareholder and president Sergio Amoroso, an entrepreneur with a penchant for social issues; and b) the strategic alignment, especially at the Jari Celulose unit, between business objectives and local, sustainable development. In the light of the specific challenges faced by pulp companies and international markets in general, Amoroso, along with Orsa Group's advisors and top managers, needed to assess the impact of the Orsa Foundation's social strategy on Jari operations.


Case Authors : Rosa Maria Fischer, Decio Zylbersztajn, Joao Teixeira Pires, Luciana Rocha Mendonca

Topic : Organizational Development

Related Areas : Joint ventures




Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Orsa Group: the Challenge of Sustainable Development in the Amazon Case Study


Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10007158) -10007158 - -
Year 1 3463385 -6543773 3463385 0.9434 3267344
Year 2 3954477 -2589296 7417862 0.89 3519470
Year 3 3964474 1375178 11382336 0.8396 3328649
Year 4 3227500 4602678 14609836 0.7921 2556482
TOTAL 14609836 12671946


The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2664788

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting


What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.




Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting


There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Profitability Index
2. Payback Period
3. Internal Rate of Return
4. Net Present Value

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Orsa Jari have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.
2. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Orsa Jari shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.




Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Orsa Group: the Challenge of Sustainable Development in the Amazon

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Organizational Development Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Orsa Jari often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Orsa Jari needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10007158) -10007158 - -
Year 1 3463385 -6543773 3463385 0.8696 3011639
Year 2 3954477 -2589296 7417862 0.7561 2990153
Year 3 3964474 1375178 11382336 0.6575 2606706
Year 4 3227500 4602678 14609836 0.5718 1845334
TOTAL 10453831


The Net NPV after 4 years is 446673

(10453831 - 10007158 )






Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%


If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10007158) -10007158 - -
Year 1 3463385 -6543773 3463385 0.8333 2886154
Year 2 3954477 -2589296 7417862 0.6944 2746165
Year 3 3964474 1375178 11382336 0.5787 2294256
Year 4 3227500 4602678 14609836 0.4823 1556472
TOTAL 9483046


The Net NPV after 4 years is -524112

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9483046 - 10007158 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Orsa Jari to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.



Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Orsa Jari has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Orsa Jari can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Orsa Jari, then the stock price of the Orsa Jari should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Orsa Jari should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.




References & Further Readings

Rosa Maria Fischer, Decio Zylbersztajn, Joao Teixeira Pires, Luciana Rocha Mendonca (2018), "Orsa Group: the Challenge of Sustainable Development in the Amazon Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.