×




Bosch Group in India: Transition to a Transnational Organization Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Bosch Group in India: Transition to a Transnational Organization case study


At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Bosch Group in India: Transition to a Transnational Organization case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Abhoy Ojha. The Bosch Group in India: Transition to a Transnational Organization (referred as “Bosch Transnational” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Organizational Development. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Organizational structure.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment




Case Description of Bosch Group in India: Transition to a Transnational Organization Case Study


The Bosch Group is a leading global supplier of technology and services with a concentration in areas of automotive technology, industrial technology, consumer goods, and building technology. The case describes the structural changes in Bosch over its lifetime, from its founding in 1886 to the most recent changes initiated in 2007 to make it into a transnational organization. The description focuses on two types of reasons for change - one driven by the growth of the organization and the other driven by the internationalization/globalization. Until recently, Bosch's operations were structured as global geographic divisions. In 2007, the organization initiated a program to re-organize the operations as a global matrix structure. The case describes in some detail the latest changes to adopt the transnational matrix structure with emphasis on global product divisions instead of the earlier emphasis on geographic divisions outside Europe. In the second part of the case, some of the opportunities and challenges that have emerged in the India operations of Bosch as a consequence of the global changes initiated by the headquarters are described. Prior to the recent changes, the companies of the Bosch Group in India operated as would any other local Indian company, with limited interface with other group companies, and little interference from headquarters. They were also doing quite well, and the managers and employees were not expecting any re-structuring. However, as part of the changes driven by global headquarters, the India operations had to undergo tremendous structural and process changes - there would be greater integration among the group companies in India, and greater integration with global product divisions. The case examines the challenges and opportunities of implementing organizational changes in a context where there is no felt need for change.


Case Authors : Abhoy Ojha

Topic : Organizational Development

Related Areas : Organizational structure




Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Bosch Group in India: Transition to a Transnational Organization Case Study


Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10001052) -10001052 - -
Year 1 3462464 -6538588 3462464 0.9434 3266475
Year 2 3953905 -2584683 7416369 0.89 3518961
Year 3 3965496 1380813 11381865 0.8396 3329507
Year 4 3239682 4620495 14621547 0.7921 2566132
TOTAL 14621547 12681075


The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2680023

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting


What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.




Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting


There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Profitability Index
2. Internal Rate of Return
3. Net Present Value
4. Payback Period

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Bosch Transnational shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.
2. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Bosch Transnational have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.




Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Bosch Group in India: Transition to a Transnational Organization

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Organizational Development Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Bosch Transnational often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Bosch Transnational needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10001052) -10001052 - -
Year 1 3462464 -6538588 3462464 0.8696 3010838
Year 2 3953905 -2584683 7416369 0.7561 2989720
Year 3 3965496 1380813 11381865 0.6575 2607378
Year 4 3239682 4620495 14621547 0.5718 1852299
TOTAL 10460235


The Net NPV after 4 years is 459183

(10460235 - 10001052 )






Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%


If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10001052) -10001052 - -
Year 1 3462464 -6538588 3462464 0.8333 2885387
Year 2 3953905 -2584683 7416369 0.6944 2745767
Year 3 3965496 1380813 11381865 0.5787 2294847
Year 4 3239682 4620495 14621547 0.4823 1562347
TOTAL 9488348


The Net NPV after 4 years is -512704

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9488348 - 10001052 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Bosch Transnational to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.



Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Bosch Transnational has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Bosch Transnational can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Bosch Transnational, then the stock price of the Bosch Transnational should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Bosch Transnational should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.




References & Further Readings

Abhoy Ojha (2018), "Bosch Group in India: Transition to a Transnational Organization Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.