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BAKRA BEVERAGE - Confidential Instructions for BebsiCo's Director of Middle East Operations Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for BAKRA BEVERAGE - Confidential Instructions for BebsiCo's Director of Middle East Operations case study


At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. BAKRA BEVERAGE - Confidential Instructions for BebsiCo's Director of Middle East Operations case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Dan Vogel, Robert C. Bordone. The BAKRA BEVERAGE - Confidential Instructions for BebsiCo's Director of Middle East Operations (referred as “Bakra Beverage” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Strategy & Execution. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Marketing, Negotiations.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment




Case Description of BAKRA BEVERAGE - Confidential Instructions for BebsiCo's Director of Middle East Operations Case Study


Accompanied by product #PON053Bakra Beverage is a two-party, nonscorable negotiation between a beverage manufacturer and a soft drink distributor over the terms of a potential distribution contract. BebsiCo is a multibillion-dollar, multinational soft drink manufacturer interested in expanding its operations into the Middle Eastern country of Kumar. The distributor that was supposed to handle BebsiCo's new distribution campaign, Kabir Cola, decided suddenly last week to close its Kumari operations and focus on other Middle Eastern countries. BebsiCo is eager to sign a new distribution contract with the Kumar-based Bakra Beverage, a financially troubled but reputable soft drink distributor. Bakra wants this contract, which would put it back on the map, attract additional clients, and give the company confidence and certainty about its future. The simulation includes a range of possible criteria for determining the fee, as well as numerous possibilities for value-creating options. This is a role play case.


Case Authors : Dan Vogel, Robert C. Bordone

Topic : Strategy & Execution

Related Areas : Marketing, Negotiations




Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for BAKRA BEVERAGE - Confidential Instructions for BebsiCo's Director of Middle East Operations Case Study


Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10020307) -10020307 - -
Year 1 3450142 -6570165 3450142 0.9434 3254851
Year 2 3961733 -2608432 7411875 0.89 3525928
Year 3 3941006 1332574 11352881 0.8396 3308945
Year 4 3227042 4559616 14579923 0.7921 2556120
TOTAL 14579923 12645843


The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2625536

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting


What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.




Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting


There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Net Present Value
2. Payback Period
3. Profitability Index
4. Internal Rate of Return

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Bakra Beverage shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.
2. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Bakra Beverage have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.




Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of BAKRA BEVERAGE - Confidential Instructions for BebsiCo's Director of Middle East Operations

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Strategy & Execution Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Bakra Beverage often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Bakra Beverage needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10020307) -10020307 - -
Year 1 3450142 -6570165 3450142 0.8696 3000123
Year 2 3961733 -2608432 7411875 0.7561 2995639
Year 3 3941006 1332574 11352881 0.6575 2591275
Year 4 3227042 4559616 14579923 0.5718 1845072
TOTAL 10432110


The Net NPV after 4 years is 411803

(10432110 - 10020307 )






Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%


If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10020307) -10020307 - -
Year 1 3450142 -6570165 3450142 0.8333 2875118
Year 2 3961733 -2608432 7411875 0.6944 2751203
Year 3 3941006 1332574 11352881 0.5787 2280675
Year 4 3227042 4559616 14579923 0.4823 1556251
TOTAL 9463248


The Net NPV after 4 years is -557059

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9463248 - 10020307 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Bakra Beverage to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.



Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Bakra Beverage has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Bakra Beverage can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Bakra Beverage, then the stock price of the Bakra Beverage should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Bakra Beverage should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.




References & Further Readings

Dan Vogel, Robert C. Bordone (2018), "BAKRA BEVERAGE - Confidential Instructions for BebsiCo's Director of Middle East Operations Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.