Beyond Strategy: Configuration as a Pillar of Competitive Advantage Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Beyond Strategy: Configuration as a Pillar of Competitive Advantage case study

At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Beyond Strategy: Configuration as a Pillar of Competitive Advantage case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Danny Miller, John O. Whitney. The Beyond Strategy: Configuration as a Pillar of Competitive Advantage (referred as “Configuration Prototypes” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Strategy & Execution. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Organizational culture, Strategy execution.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment

Case Description of Beyond Strategy: Configuration as a Pillar of Competitive Advantage Case Study

One company can copy another's strategy, reverse engineer its technology, or benchmark its systems. But it cannot duplicate the way strategy, systems, technology, and processes are configured into a synergetic whole. Competitive advantage results from a powerful unifying focus that pulls together the company's core mission and the systems and structures that support the core. Marshall Industries provides an excellent case study of how a company achieved a compelling configuration that goes beyond strategy. Three prototypes of effective configurations are suggested: the pioneer, the salesman, and the craftsman (specific firms illustrate these prototypes). Ideally, a configuration demonstrates consistent emphases: across mission, means, and market; in support systems that direct attitudes and attention; in the prioritization of resources; and in the directing of effort, motivation, and influence. But configuration can be excessive; symptoms of this include too much attention to a single narrow goal and failure to reexamine assumptions and methods. A good configuration permits periodic reassessment and provides the means for renewal and revision. A suggested "configuration audit" is offered as a guide to managers.

Case Authors : Danny Miller, John O. Whitney

Topic : Strategy & Execution

Related Areas : Organizational culture, Strategy execution

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Beyond Strategy: Configuration as a Pillar of Competitive Advantage Case Study

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10023544) -10023544 - -
Year 1 3471753 -6551791 3471753 0.9434 3275239
Year 2 3978009 -2573782 7449762 0.89 3540414
Year 3 3975589 1401807 11425351 0.8396 3337981
Year 4 3249989 4651796 14675340 0.7921 2574296
TOTAL 14675340 12727929

The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2704385

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting

What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.

Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting

There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Profitability Index
2. Internal Rate of Return
3. Payback Period
4. Net Present Value

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Configuration Prototypes shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.
2. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Configuration Prototypes have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.

Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Beyond Strategy: Configuration as a Pillar of Competitive Advantage

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Strategy & Execution Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Configuration Prototypes often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Configuration Prototypes needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10023544) -10023544 - -
Year 1 3471753 -6551791 3471753 0.8696 3018916
Year 2 3978009 -2573782 7449762 0.7561 3007946
Year 3 3975589 1401807 11425351 0.6575 2614014
Year 4 3249989 4651796 14675340 0.5718 1858192
TOTAL 10499068

The Net NPV after 4 years is 475524

(10499068 - 10023544 )

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%

If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10023544) -10023544 - -
Year 1 3471753 -6551791 3471753 0.8333 2893128
Year 2 3978009 -2573782 7449762 0.6944 2762506
Year 3 3975589 1401807 11425351 0.5787 2300688
Year 4 3249989 4651796 14675340 0.4823 1567317
TOTAL 9523639

The Net NPV after 4 years is -499905

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9523639 - 10023544 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Configuration Prototypes to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.

Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Configuration Prototypes has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Configuration Prototypes can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Configuration Prototypes, then the stock price of the Configuration Prototypes should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Configuration Prototypes should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.

References & Further Readings

Danny Miller, John O. Whitney (2018), "Beyond Strategy: Configuration as a Pillar of Competitive Advantage Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.