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Public Private Partnership: London Underground Limited Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Public Private Partnership: London Underground Limited case study


At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Public Private Partnership: London Underground Limited case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Arthur McInnes, Frederik Pretorius, Alison Bate. The Public Private Partnership: London Underground Limited (referred as “Mtrc Ppp” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Finance & Accounting. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Joint ventures, Mergers & acquisitions, Operations management, Project management.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment




Case Description of Public Private Partnership: London Underground Limited Case Study


In 2007, Hong Kong MTR Corporation Limited (MTRC) was offered a 20% stake in Metronet Rail (Metronet), one of the two private sector engineering consortia contracted to run and maintain the London Underground rail network, under a 30-year public private partnership (PPP) agreement with London Underground Limited (LUL). This investment had the potential to transform MTRC from a local rail operator into an international player, giving the Company a major foothold in operating urban rail systems in Europe. However, the LUL PPP was widely regarded as one of the most complex private finance arrangements in the UK public sector, and there were a host of uncertainties for Hong Kong MTRC to contend with about its ability to make a success of the project. This case would allow students to explore the motives behind the PPP agreements to operate government assets and the implications of PPP for management's operating and financial strategy. At the same time, students can also evaluate the offer made to the MTRC and the appropriateness of the Company's acceptance.


Case Authors : Arthur McInnes, Frederik Pretorius, Alison Bate

Topic : Finance & Accounting

Related Areas : Joint ventures, Mergers & acquisitions, Operations management, Project management




Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Public Private Partnership: London Underground Limited Case Study


Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10025730) -10025730 - -
Year 1 3472972 -6552758 3472972 0.9434 3276389
Year 2 3956243 -2596515 7429215 0.89 3521042
Year 3 3964604 1368089 11393819 0.8396 3328758
Year 4 3241788 4609877 14635607 0.7921 2567800
TOTAL 14635607 12693989


The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2668259

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting


What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.




Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting


There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Profitability Index
2. Net Present Value
3. Payback Period
4. Internal Rate of Return

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Mtrc Ppp have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.
2. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Mtrc Ppp shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.




Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Public Private Partnership: London Underground Limited

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Finance & Accounting Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Mtrc Ppp often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Mtrc Ppp needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10025730) -10025730 - -
Year 1 3472972 -6552758 3472972 0.8696 3019976
Year 2 3956243 -2596515 7429215 0.7561 2991488
Year 3 3964604 1368089 11393819 0.6575 2606791
Year 4 3241788 4609877 14635607 0.5718 1853503
TOTAL 10471758


The Net NPV after 4 years is 446028

(10471758 - 10025730 )






Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%


If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10025730) -10025730 - -
Year 1 3472972 -6552758 3472972 0.8333 2894143
Year 2 3956243 -2596515 7429215 0.6944 2747391
Year 3 3964604 1368089 11393819 0.5787 2294331
Year 4 3241788 4609877 14635607 0.4823 1563362
TOTAL 9499228


The Net NPV after 4 years is -526502

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9499228 - 10025730 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Mtrc Ppp to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.



Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Mtrc Ppp has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Mtrc Ppp can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Mtrc Ppp, then the stock price of the Mtrc Ppp should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Mtrc Ppp should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.




References & Further Readings

Arthur McInnes, Frederik Pretorius, Alison Bate (2018), "Public Private Partnership: London Underground Limited Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.