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Azim Premji Trust: The Endowment Model in an Emerging Market Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Azim Premji Trust: The Endowment Model in an Emerging Market case study


At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Azim Premji Trust: The Endowment Model in an Emerging Market case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Vikram Kuriyan, Unnati Ved, Geetika Shah. The Azim Premji Trust: The Endowment Model in an Emerging Market (referred as “Azim Premji” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Finance & Accounting. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Social enterprise, Social responsibility.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment




Case Description of Azim Premji Trust: The Endowment Model in an Emerging Market Case Study


The Azim Premji Trust, among the largest philanthropic trusts in India, had its origins in 2001, when Azim Premji transferred Wipro shares worth US$ 125 million to the trust. As of March 31, 2017, the trust had a corpus fund of US$ 9 billion. The trust's goal was to support Premji's philanthropic pursuits through two organizations -- the Azim Premji Foundation and Azim Premji Philanthropic Initiatives. Both beneficiaries had distinct, ambitious philanthropic objectives that required large, ongoing funding. The trust's Chief Endowment Officer, K. R. Lakshminarayana, had been given the responsibility of planning the future of one of India's first endowments. The endowment was tasked with maximizing total return over a long horizon. Therefore, the trust had deliberately been created as a taxable entity to allow it the freedom to make large investments in equities and alternatives. The case describes the challenges Lakshminarayana, widely known as Lan, faced in arriving at a strategic asset allocation model in an emerging market with limited investment talent and investment firms and constraints on the trust's ability to invest outside India.


Case Authors : Vikram Kuriyan, Unnati Ved, Geetika Shah

Topic : Finance & Accounting

Related Areas : Social enterprise, Social responsibility




Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Azim Premji Trust: The Endowment Model in an Emerging Market Case Study


Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10007418) -10007418 - -
Year 1 3443877 -6563541 3443877 0.9434 3248941
Year 2 3967585 -2595956 7411462 0.89 3531137
Year 3 3959481 1363525 11370943 0.8396 3324457
Year 4 3229824 4593349 14600767 0.7921 2558323
TOTAL 14600767 12662857


The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2655439

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting


What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.




Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting


There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Net Present Value
2. Profitability Index
3. Internal Rate of Return
4. Payback Period

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Azim Premji shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.
2. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Azim Premji have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.




Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Azim Premji Trust: The Endowment Model in an Emerging Market

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Finance & Accounting Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Azim Premji often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Azim Premji needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10007418) -10007418 - -
Year 1 3443877 -6563541 3443877 0.8696 2994676
Year 2 3967585 -2595956 7411462 0.7561 3000064
Year 3 3959481 1363525 11370943 0.6575 2603423
Year 4 3229824 4593349 14600767 0.5718 1846662
TOTAL 10444825


The Net NPV after 4 years is 437407

(10444825 - 10007418 )






Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%


If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10007418) -10007418 - -
Year 1 3443877 -6563541 3443877 0.8333 2869898
Year 2 3967585 -2595956 7411462 0.6944 2755267
Year 3 3959481 1363525 11370943 0.5787 2291366
Year 4 3229824 4593349 14600767 0.4823 1557593
TOTAL 9474124


The Net NPV after 4 years is -533294

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9474124 - 10007418 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Azim Premji to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.



Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Azim Premji has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Azim Premji can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Azim Premji, then the stock price of the Azim Premji should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Azim Premji should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.




References & Further Readings

Vikram Kuriyan, Unnati Ved, Geetika Shah (2018), "Azim Premji Trust: The Endowment Model in an Emerging Market Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.