America's Depression of 1784-1787 and the Advent of Nationalism Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for America's Depression of 1784-1787 and the Advent of Nationalism case study

At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. America's Depression of 1784-1787 and the Advent of Nationalism case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Robert F. Bruner, Scott Miller. The America's Depression of 1784-1787 and the Advent of Nationalism (referred as “Depression 1784” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Finance & Accounting. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Economics, Financial management, Globalization.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment

Case Description of America's Depression of 1784-1787 and the Advent of Nationalism Case Study

In June 1788, James Madison prepared to attend a convention in Virginia to consider ratification of the proposed Constitution for the United States. The recent depression (1784-87) had triggered a major civic reaction over the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and inflamed differences among various groups in the country. As an architect of the new Constitution, Madison needed to prepare to defend it in the ratification convention. Vigorous opponents sought to prevent ratification and the loss of states' power to a central government. How should Madison make his case? Madison's dilemma occurs in the midst of a dramatic regime shift in American politics. The social reaction to the depression had inflamed divisions throughout the country: urban versus rural, farmers versus merchants, wealthy versus poor, and so on. Outbreaks of civil unrest mark 1784-87 as a historic pivot point. It is useful to consider how the depression of those years contributed to that pivot and how the subsequent civic reaction responded to the depression conditions.

Case Authors : Robert F. Bruner, Scott Miller

Topic : Finance & Accounting

Related Areas : Economics, Financial management, Globalization

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for America's Depression of 1784-1787 and the Advent of Nationalism Case Study

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10024458) -10024458 - -
Year 1 3467781 -6556677 3467781 0.9434 3271492
Year 2 3974184 -2582493 7441965 0.89 3537010
Year 3 3938123 1355630 11380088 0.8396 3306524
Year 4 3245078 4600708 14625166 0.7921 2570406
TOTAL 14625166 12685431

The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2660973

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting

What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.

Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting

There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Net Present Value
2. Profitability Index
3. Payback Period
4. Internal Rate of Return

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Depression 1784 have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.
2. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Depression 1784 shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.

Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of America's Depression of 1784-1787 and the Advent of Nationalism

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Finance & Accounting Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Depression 1784 often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Depression 1784 needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10024458) -10024458 - -
Year 1 3467781 -6556677 3467781 0.8696 3015462
Year 2 3974184 -2582493 7441965 0.7561 3005054
Year 3 3938123 1355630 11380088 0.6575 2589380
Year 4 3245078 4600708 14625166 0.5718 1855384
TOTAL 10465279

The Net NPV after 4 years is 440821

(10465279 - 10024458 )

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%

If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10024458) -10024458 - -
Year 1 3467781 -6556677 3467781 0.8333 2889818
Year 2 3974184 -2582493 7441965 0.6944 2759850
Year 3 3938123 1355630 11380088 0.5787 2279006
Year 4 3245078 4600708 14625166 0.4823 1564949
TOTAL 9493623

The Net NPV after 4 years is -530835

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9493623 - 10024458 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Depression 1784 to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.

Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Depression 1784 has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Depression 1784 can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Depression 1784, then the stock price of the Depression 1784 should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Depression 1784 should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.

References & Further Readings

Robert F. Bruner, Scott Miller (2018), "America's Depression of 1784-1787 and the Advent of Nationalism Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.