Lending Club Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Lending Club case study

At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Lending Club case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Matthew Saucedo, Robert Siegel. The Lending Club (referred as “Lending Club” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Finance & Accounting. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Technology.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment

Case Description of Lending Club Case Study

Lending Club follows the path of founder and CEO Renaud Laplanche as he scales his successful P2P lending company both pre- and post-IPO. From debating with bankers on the proper valuation metrics for the company, to managing customer acquisition costs as the competitive landscape rapidly changes, the Lending Club case explores several key challenges that come with operating a fin-tech company at scale.

Case Authors : Matthew Saucedo, Robert Siegel

Topic : Finance & Accounting

Related Areas : Technology

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Lending Club Case Study

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10029556) -10029556 - -
Year 1 3448630 -6580926 3448630 0.9434 3253425
Year 2 3954033 -2626893 7402663 0.89 3519075
Year 3 3970114 1343221 11372777 0.8396 3333384
Year 4 3247819 4591040 14620596 0.7921 2572577
TOTAL 14620596 12678461

The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2648905

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting

What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.

Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting

There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Payback Period
2. Net Present Value
3. Profitability Index
4. Internal Rate of Return

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Lending Club have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.
2. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Lending Club shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.

Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Lending Club

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Finance & Accounting Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Lending Club often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Lending Club needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10029556) -10029556 - -
Year 1 3448630 -6580926 3448630 0.8696 2998809
Year 2 3954033 -2626893 7402663 0.7561 2989817
Year 3 3970114 1343221 11372777 0.6575 2610414
Year 4 3247819 4591040 14620596 0.5718 1856951
TOTAL 10455991

The Net NPV after 4 years is 426435

(10455991 - 10029556 )

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%

If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10029556) -10029556 - -
Year 1 3448630 -6580926 3448630 0.8333 2873858
Year 2 3954033 -2626893 7402663 0.6944 2745856
Year 3 3970114 1343221 11372777 0.5787 2297520
Year 4 3247819 4591040 14620596 0.4823 1566271
TOTAL 9483505

The Net NPV after 4 years is -546051

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9483505 - 10029556 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Lending Club to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.

Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Lending Club has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Lending Club can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Lending Club, then the stock price of the Lending Club should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Lending Club should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.

Negotiation Strategy of Lending Club

References & Further Readings

Matthew Saucedo, Robert Siegel (2018), "Lending Club Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.

R1 RCM SWOT Analysis / TOWS Matrix

Services , Business Services

Lai Group SWOT Analysis / TOWS Matrix

Services , Business Services

Freesia Macross SWOT Analysis / TOWS Matrix

Capital Goods , Construction Services

Polaris Investama SWOT Analysis / TOWS Matrix

Services , Real Estate Operations

Galaxia SM SWOT Analysis / TOWS Matrix

Services , Business Services

Teijin SWOT Analysis / TOWS Matrix

Consumer Cyclical , Textiles - Non Apparel

Comerica SWOT Analysis / TOWS Matrix

Financial , Regional Banks

UBI Banca SWOT Analysis / TOWS Matrix

Financial , S&Ls/Savings Banks