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What Can a Mosquito Do to an Elephant? (B) Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for What Can a Mosquito Do to an Elephant? (B) case study


At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. What Can a Mosquito Do to an Elephant? (B) case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Pat Werhane, Jenny Mead, Mollie Painter-Moreland. The What Can a Mosquito Do to an Elephant? (B) (referred as “Lesotho Splinter” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Global Business. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Emerging markets, Ethics.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment




Case Description of What Can a Mosquito Do to an Elephant? (B) Case Study


This is a Darden case study."People are quick to point the finger at Africa but if someone is taking the money then someone is paying it and they must be held accountable too. You can see from this case that it is not only Africa that is corrupt," said Lesotho's Attorney General Fine Maema. This summed up the Lesotho government's approach to the Lesotho Highlands Water Project (LHWP) scandal. Determined to splinter the stereotype of all African countries being riddled with corruption, Lesotho wanted to go after the multinationals who had bribed the project's ex-CEO, Masupha Sole. The trials would be lengthy and highly expensive, and Lesotho needed financial support. This is a four-case series, labeled A through D, UV1142 through UV1145.


Case Authors : Pat Werhane, Jenny Mead, Mollie Painter-Moreland

Topic : Global Business

Related Areas : Emerging markets, Ethics




Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for What Can a Mosquito Do to an Elephant? (B) Case Study


Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10019089) -10019089 - -
Year 1 3465533 -6553556 3465533 0.9434 3269371
Year 2 3964806 -2588750 7430339 0.89 3528663
Year 3 3962027 1373277 11392366 0.8396 3326594
Year 4 3229713 4602990 14622079 0.7921 2558235
TOTAL 14622079 12682863


The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2663774

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting


What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.




Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting


There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Internal Rate of Return
2. Net Present Value
3. Payback Period
4. Profitability Index

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Lesotho Splinter shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.
2. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Lesotho Splinter have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.




Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of What Can a Mosquito Do to an Elephant? (B)

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Global Business Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Lesotho Splinter often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Lesotho Splinter needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10019089) -10019089 - -
Year 1 3465533 -6553556 3465533 0.8696 3013507
Year 2 3964806 -2588750 7430339 0.7561 2997963
Year 3 3962027 1373277 11392366 0.6575 2605097
Year 4 3229713 4602990 14622079 0.5718 1846599
TOTAL 10463166


The Net NPV after 4 years is 444077

(10463166 - 10019089 )






Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%


If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10019089) -10019089 - -
Year 1 3465533 -6553556 3465533 0.8333 2887944
Year 2 3964806 -2588750 7430339 0.6944 2753338
Year 3 3962027 1373277 11392366 0.5787 2292840
Year 4 3229713 4602990 14622079 0.4823 1557539
TOTAL 9491660


The Net NPV after 4 years is -527429

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9491660 - 10019089 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Lesotho Splinter to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.



Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Lesotho Splinter has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Lesotho Splinter can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Lesotho Splinter, then the stock price of the Lesotho Splinter should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Lesotho Splinter should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.




References & Further Readings

Pat Werhane, Jenny Mead, Mollie Painter-Moreland (2018), "What Can a Mosquito Do to an Elephant? (B) Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.