What a Great Idea Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for What a Great Idea case study

At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. What a Great Idea case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Myra M. Hart, Susan S. Harmeling. The What a Great Idea (referred as “Site.charles Copy” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Innovation & Entrepreneurship. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Entrepreneurship, Knowledge management, Organizational structure, Strategic planning.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment

Case Description of What a Great Idea Case Study

This case is available in only hard copy format (HBP does not have digital distribution rights to the content). As a result, a digital Educator Copy of the case is not available through this web site.Charles "Chic" Thompson has created a successful business as a professional speaker, consultant, and author of two books on creativity. He is challenged to institutionalize his knowledge and brand in an organization that will outlive his involvement. This case examines the question of how to leverage individual capabilities to create an enduring professional service/educational firm.

Case Authors : Myra M. Hart, Susan S. Harmeling

Topic : Innovation & Entrepreneurship

Related Areas : Entrepreneurship, Knowledge management, Organizational structure, Strategic planning

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for What a Great Idea Case Study

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10029735) -10029735 - -
Year 1 3445168 -6584567 3445168 0.9434 3250158
Year 2 3958780 -2625787 7403948 0.89 3523300
Year 3 3949720 1323933 11353668 0.8396 3316261
Year 4 3242767 4566700 14596435 0.7921 2568575
TOTAL 14596435 12658295

The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2628560

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting

What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.

Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting

There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Net Present Value
2. Profitability Index
3. Payback Period
4. Internal Rate of Return

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Site.charles Copy have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.
2. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Site.charles Copy shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.

Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of What a Great Idea

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Innovation & Entrepreneurship Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Site.charles Copy often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Site.charles Copy needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10029735) -10029735 - -
Year 1 3445168 -6584567 3445168 0.8696 2995798
Year 2 3958780 -2625787 7403948 0.7561 2993406
Year 3 3949720 1323933 11353668 0.6575 2597005
Year 4 3242767 4566700 14596435 0.5718 1854063
TOTAL 10440272

The Net NPV after 4 years is 410537

(10440272 - 10029735 )

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%

If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10029735) -10029735 - -
Year 1 3445168 -6584567 3445168 0.8333 2870973
Year 2 3958780 -2625787 7403948 0.6944 2749153
Year 3 3949720 1323933 11353668 0.5787 2285718
Year 4 3242767 4566700 14596435 0.4823 1563834
TOTAL 9469678

The Net NPV after 4 years is -560057

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9469678 - 10029735 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Site.charles Copy to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.

Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Site.charles Copy has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Site.charles Copy can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Site.charles Copy, then the stock price of the Site.charles Copy should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Site.charles Copy should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.

Negotiation Strategy of What a Great Idea

References & Further Readings

Myra M. Hart, Susan S. Harmeling (2018), "What a Great Idea Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.

Asian Star Co SWOT Analysis / TOWS Matrix

Capital Goods , Construction Services

Octagonal plc SWOT Analysis / TOWS Matrix

Services , Security Systems & Services

Xinghua Chem A SWOT Analysis / TOWS Matrix

Basic Materials , Chemical Manufacturing

Samjin Pharm SWOT Analysis / TOWS Matrix

Healthcare , Biotechnology & Drugs

Ceridian HCM SWOT Analysis / TOWS Matrix

Technology , Software & Programming

Kader SWOT Analysis / TOWS Matrix

Consumer Cyclical , Recreational Products

Strata Oil Gas SWOT Analysis / TOWS Matrix

Energy , Oil & Gas Operations

Fu Shou Yuan Int SWOT Analysis / TOWS Matrix

Capital Goods , Construction Services

Anhui Zhongyuan New Materials SWOT Analysis / TOWS Matrix

Basic Materials , Misc. Fabricated Products