Domino's Pizza Inc Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Domino's Pizza Inc case study

At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Domino's Pizza Inc case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by M.S. Krishnan. The Domino's Pizza Inc (referred as “Pizza Domino's” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Innovation & Entrepreneurship. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Customers, IT, Operations management, Organizational culture, Organizational structure, Social responsibility.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment

Case Description of Domino's Pizza Inc Case Study

After settling a $78-million lawsuit with a St. Louis woman who was struck by one of its drivers, Domino's Pizza decided to eliminate its 30-minute delivery guarantee and transform its business model through innovations in the areas of technology, social architecture, and operations. The company provided consistency of experience for customers by introducing its Pizza Tracker - a web-based application that allowed customers to track their pizza at each stage of the process - standardizing the layout and processes used in each of its stores, and providing more transparency into employee performance. Students are asked to evaluate how Domino's used technology and innovation to improve efficiency, quality, customer relationship management (CRM), and employee relations as well as assess its change management process.

Case Authors : M.S. Krishnan

Topic : Innovation & Entrepreneurship

Related Areas : Customers, IT, Operations management, Organizational culture, Organizational structure, Social responsibility

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Domino's Pizza Inc Case Study

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10029639) -10029639 - -
Year 1 3465291 -6564348 3465291 0.9434 3269142
Year 2 3969797 -2594551 7435088 0.89 3533105
Year 3 3965510 1370959 11400598 0.8396 3329519
Year 4 3229799 4600758 14630397 0.7921 2558303
TOTAL 14630397 12690070

The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2660431

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting

What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.

Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting

There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Payback Period
2. Profitability Index
3. Internal Rate of Return
4. Net Present Value

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Pizza Domino's shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.
2. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Pizza Domino's have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.

Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Domino's Pizza Inc

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Innovation & Entrepreneurship Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Pizza Domino's often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Pizza Domino's needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10029639) -10029639 - -
Year 1 3465291 -6564348 3465291 0.8696 3013297
Year 2 3969797 -2594551 7435088 0.7561 3001737
Year 3 3965510 1370959 11400598 0.6575 2607387
Year 4 3229799 4600758 14630397 0.5718 1846648
TOTAL 10469069

The Net NPV after 4 years is 439430

(10469069 - 10029639 )

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%

If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10029639) -10029639 - -
Year 1 3465291 -6564348 3465291 0.8333 2887743
Year 2 3969797 -2594551 7435088 0.6944 2756803
Year 3 3965510 1370959 11400598 0.5787 2294855
Year 4 3229799 4600758 14630397 0.4823 1557581
TOTAL 9496982

The Net NPV after 4 years is -532657

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9496982 - 10029639 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Pizza Domino's to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.

Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Pizza Domino's has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Pizza Domino's can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Pizza Domino's, then the stock price of the Pizza Domino's should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Pizza Domino's should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.

References & Further Readings

M.S. Krishnan (2018), "Domino's Pizza Inc Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.