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Paytm: Targeting More Pockets for Its Mobile Wallet Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Paytm: Targeting More Pockets for Its Mobile Wallet case study


At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Paytm: Targeting More Pockets for Its Mobile Wallet case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Sandeep Puri, Shivani Upadhyay, Siddharth Agarwal, Debasish Chatterjee. The Paytm: Targeting More Pockets for Its Mobile Wallet (referred as “Paytm Wallet” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Leadership & Managing People. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, International business, Strategy, Technology.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment




Case Description of Paytm: Targeting More Pockets for Its Mobile Wallet Case Study


Paytm enjoyed a position as the leader in India's market for mobile wallets, a digital service that enabled payments to be made through mobile devices. Paytm's major client, Uber, which developed and operated a smartphone-based, ride-hailing app as a way to compete with traditional taxi companies, had initially used Paytm's mobile wallet as the sole payment mode for Uber rides in India. However, in 2015 Uber revised its payment policy by adding a variety of payment options, such as debit cards, credit cards, and the addition of several other mobile wallet providers. Did Uber's strategies and plans represent a major concern for Paytm? Amid such changes in the highly competitive digital payment industry, what strategies should Paytm adopt to expand its own offerings and maintain its position as the market leader? What other options could the company pursue to ensure its sustainability and continuous growth? Sandeep Puri is affiliated with Institute of Management Technology, Ghaziaba.


Case Authors : Sandeep Puri, Shivani Upadhyay, Siddharth Agarwal, Debasish Chatterjee

Topic : Leadership & Managing People

Related Areas : International business, Strategy, Technology




Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Paytm: Targeting More Pockets for Its Mobile Wallet Case Study


Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10002456) -10002456 - -
Year 1 3454130 -6548326 3454130 0.9434 3258613
Year 2 3970741 -2577585 7424871 0.89 3533945
Year 3 3936697 1359112 11361568 0.8396 3305327
Year 4 3244989 4604101 14606557 0.7921 2570335
TOTAL 14606557 12668220


The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2665764

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting


What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.




Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting


There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Internal Rate of Return
2. Net Present Value
3. Profitability Index
4. Payback Period

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Paytm Wallet shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.
2. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Paytm Wallet have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.




Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Paytm: Targeting More Pockets for Its Mobile Wallet

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Leadership & Managing People Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Paytm Wallet often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Paytm Wallet needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10002456) -10002456 - -
Year 1 3454130 -6548326 3454130 0.8696 3003591
Year 2 3970741 -2577585 7424871 0.7561 3002451
Year 3 3936697 1359112 11361568 0.6575 2588442
Year 4 3244989 4604101 14606557 0.5718 1855333
TOTAL 10449817


The Net NPV after 4 years is 447361

(10449817 - 10002456 )






Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%


If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10002456) -10002456 - -
Year 1 3454130 -6548326 3454130 0.8333 2878442
Year 2 3970741 -2577585 7424871 0.6944 2757459
Year 3 3936697 1359112 11361568 0.5787 2278181
Year 4 3244989 4604101 14606557 0.4823 1564906
TOTAL 9478988


The Net NPV after 4 years is -523468

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9478988 - 10002456 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Paytm Wallet to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.



Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Paytm Wallet has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Paytm Wallet can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Paytm Wallet, then the stock price of the Paytm Wallet should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Paytm Wallet should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.




References & Further Readings

Sandeep Puri, Shivani Upadhyay, Siddharth Agarwal, Debasish Chatterjee (2018), "Paytm: Targeting More Pockets for Its Mobile Wallet Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.