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Walton: Building a Global Brand Through Internationalization Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Walton: Building a Global Brand Through Internationalization case study


At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Walton: Building a Global Brand Through Internationalization case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Mohammad B. Rana, Mohammad Tarikul Islam, Nikhilesh Dholakia. The Walton: Building a Global Brand Through Internationalization (referred as “Walton Walton's” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Leadership & Managing People. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Entrepreneurship, Manufacturing, Marketing, Strategy.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment




Case Description of Walton: Building a Global Brand Through Internationalization Case Study


By 2014, the Walton Group, an electrical goods manufacturer based in Bangladesh, sold its products in over 20 different countries. A decision to utilize the advantages of low labour costs in the company's home country was made in the early 2000s, which led to an increase in value and permitted rapid international expansion. To achieve Walton's mission of "Walton at every home," the company established various specialized support units both inside and outside of Bangladesh. Government tax incentives in Bangladesh had boosted Walton's cost competitiveness, but how else could Walton compete with other international brands to achieve is goals and become a household name worldwide? Nikhilesh Dholakia is affiliated with Aalborg University.


Case Authors : Mohammad B. Rana, Mohammad Tarikul Islam, Nikhilesh Dholakia

Topic : Leadership & Managing People

Related Areas : Entrepreneurship, Manufacturing, Marketing, Strategy




Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Walton: Building a Global Brand Through Internationalization Case Study


Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10004648) -10004648 - -
Year 1 3448197 -6556451 3448197 0.9434 3253016
Year 2 3979139 -2577312 7427336 0.89 3541420
Year 3 3940006 1362694 11367342 0.8396 3308105
Year 4 3238446 4601140 14605788 0.7921 2565153
TOTAL 14605788 12667693


The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2663045

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting


What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.




Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting


There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Payback Period
2. Internal Rate of Return
3. Profitability Index
4. Net Present Value

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Walton Walton's shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.
2. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Walton Walton's have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.




Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Walton: Building a Global Brand Through Internationalization

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Leadership & Managing People Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Walton Walton's often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Walton Walton's needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10004648) -10004648 - -
Year 1 3448197 -6556451 3448197 0.8696 2998432
Year 2 3979139 -2577312 7427336 0.7561 3008801
Year 3 3940006 1362694 11367342 0.6575 2590618
Year 4 3238446 4601140 14605788 0.5718 1851592
TOTAL 10449443


The Net NPV after 4 years is 444795

(10449443 - 10004648 )






Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%


If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10004648) -10004648 - -
Year 1 3448197 -6556451 3448197 0.8333 2873498
Year 2 3979139 -2577312 7427336 0.6944 2763291
Year 3 3940006 1362694 11367342 0.5787 2280096
Year 4 3238446 4601140 14605788 0.4823 1561751
TOTAL 9478635


The Net NPV after 4 years is -526013

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9478635 - 10004648 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Walton Walton's to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.



Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Walton Walton's has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Walton Walton's can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Walton Walton's, then the stock price of the Walton Walton's should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Walton Walton's should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.




References & Further Readings

Mohammad B. Rana, Mohammad Tarikul Islam, Nikhilesh Dholakia (2018), "Walton: Building a Global Brand Through Internationalization Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.