Fu Hong Society: Governance with Strong Operational Oversight Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Fu Hong Society: Governance with Strong Operational Oversight case study

At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Fu Hong Society: Governance with Strong Operational Oversight case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Sammy Fung, Herman Chan, W.H. Lo. The Fu Hong Society: Governance with Strong Operational Oversight (referred as “Fhs Council” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Leadership & Managing People. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, International business, Leadership, Organizational culture.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment

Case Description of Fu Hong Society: Governance with Strong Operational Oversight Case Study

In comparison to those of other nongovernmental organizations ("NGOs") of similar size in Hong Kong, the organizational chart of Fu Hong Society ("FHS") shows a comparatively large number of corporate governance committees or subcommittees under its governing board, the council. The 21 committees and subcommittees mobilize over 100 FHS members and stakeholders to play roles of functional oversight for almost all operational aspects of FHS, including such diverse areas as services monitoring, complaint appeals, finance functions, human resources, building maintenance, marketing, public relations, IT functions, research, and exchange projects with other NGOs. As FHS is an NGO that receives over 84% of its expenditures from the Hong Kong government ("HKG") for rendering subvented services to serve people with intellectual disabilities, it is natural that its council performs its governance roles in a manner that is consistent with the HKG's advocated code of practices for corporate governance in NGOs. This code of practices calls for NGO boards and directors to focus on assurance of legal and regulatory compliance, sound financial management, performance monitoring, and operational transparency. The formation of a large number of governance committees and the recruitment and appointment of related member and stakeholder resources are largely the result of a conscious decision of the FHS council to exercise strong monitoring and operational oversight of FHS. Why did FHS's council adopt this approach? How does it monitor FHS's operations and service execution?

Case Authors : Sammy Fung, Herman Chan, W.H. Lo

Topic : Leadership & Managing People

Related Areas : International business, Leadership, Organizational culture

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Fu Hong Society: Governance with Strong Operational Oversight Case Study

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10008345) -10008345 - -
Year 1 3460416 -6547929 3460416 0.9434 3264543
Year 2 3975716 -2572213 7436132 0.89 3538373
Year 3 3966152 1393939 11402284 0.8396 3330058
Year 4 3242884 4636823 14645168 0.7921 2568668
TOTAL 14645168 12701642

The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2693297

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting

What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.

Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting

There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Payback Period
2. Profitability Index
3. Net Present Value
4. Internal Rate of Return

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Fhs Council have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.
2. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Fhs Council shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.

Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Fu Hong Society: Governance with Strong Operational Oversight

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Leadership & Managing People Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Fhs Council often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Fhs Council needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10008345) -10008345 - -
Year 1 3460416 -6547929 3460416 0.8696 3009057
Year 2 3975716 -2572213 7436132 0.7561 3006212
Year 3 3966152 1393939 11402284 0.6575 2607809
Year 4 3242884 4636823 14645168 0.5718 1854129
TOTAL 10477209

The Net NPV after 4 years is 468864

(10477209 - 10008345 )

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%

If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10008345) -10008345 - -
Year 1 3460416 -6547929 3460416 0.8333 2883680
Year 2 3975716 -2572213 7436132 0.6944 2760914
Year 3 3966152 1393939 11402284 0.5787 2295227
Year 4 3242884 4636823 14645168 0.4823 1563891
TOTAL 9503712

The Net NPV after 4 years is -504633

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9503712 - 10008345 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Fhs Council to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.

Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Fhs Council has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Fhs Council can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Fhs Council, then the stock price of the Fhs Council should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Fhs Council should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.

References & Further Readings

Sammy Fung, Herman Chan, W.H. Lo (2018), "Fu Hong Society: Governance with Strong Operational Oversight Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.