Does Mattel's Iconic Barbie Doll Need a Makeover? Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Does Mattel's Iconic Barbie Doll Need a Makeover? case study

At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Does Mattel's Iconic Barbie Doll Need a Makeover? case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Karen Robson, Stefanie Beninger. The Does Mattel's Iconic Barbie Doll Need a Makeover? (referred as “Barbie Doll” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Sales & Marketing. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Gender, Public relations, Social platforms.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment

Case Description of Does Mattel's Iconic Barbie Doll Need a Makeover? Case Study

In 2015, almost 60 years after being introduced to the market, the Barbie doll was one of the world's most iconic toys. However, both the industry landscape and consumer preferences were changing, and Barbie was yet again in the spotlight as consumers criticized the toy for providing a narrow and unrealistic vision of how women should look, how they should dress, and the careers they should pursue. Sales and public perception of the doll were both on the downswing. Was there a place for the Barbie doll in 2015, or was this the end of the line for the iconic doll? What could Mattel, the company behind Barbie, do to turn things around? Karen Robson is affiliated with Simon Fraser University. Stefanie Beninger is affiliated with Simon Fraser Univ/Beedie School of Bus.

Case Authors : Karen Robson, Stefanie Beninger

Topic : Sales & Marketing

Related Areas : Gender, Public relations, Social platforms

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Does Mattel's Iconic Barbie Doll Need a Makeover? Case Study

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10000221) -10000221 - -
Year 1 3463698 -6536523 3463698 0.9434 3267640
Year 2 3980462 -2556061 7444160 0.89 3542597
Year 3 3949031 1392970 11393191 0.8396 3315683
Year 4 3249105 4642075 14642296 0.7921 2573595
TOTAL 14642296 12699515

The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2699294

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting

What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.

Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting

There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Payback Period
2. Internal Rate of Return
3. Net Present Value
4. Profitability Index

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Barbie Doll have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.
2. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Barbie Doll shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.

Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Does Mattel's Iconic Barbie Doll Need a Makeover?

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Sales & Marketing Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Barbie Doll often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Barbie Doll needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10000221) -10000221 - -
Year 1 3463698 -6536523 3463698 0.8696 3011911
Year 2 3980462 -2556061 7444160 0.7561 3009801
Year 3 3949031 1392970 11393191 0.6575 2596552
Year 4 3249105 4642075 14642296 0.5718 1857686
TOTAL 10475951

The Net NPV after 4 years is 475730

(10475951 - 10000221 )

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%

If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10000221) -10000221 - -
Year 1 3463698 -6536523 3463698 0.8333 2886415
Year 2 3980462 -2556061 7444160 0.6944 2764210
Year 3 3949031 1392970 11393191 0.5787 2285319
Year 4 3249105 4642075 14642296 0.4823 1566891
TOTAL 9502835

The Net NPV after 4 years is -497386

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9502835 - 10000221 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Barbie Doll to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.

Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Barbie Doll has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Barbie Doll can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Barbie Doll, then the stock price of the Barbie Doll should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Barbie Doll should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.

References & Further Readings

Karen Robson, Stefanie Beninger (2018), "Does Mattel's Iconic Barbie Doll Need a Makeover? Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.