A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Warning

Message: fopen(/var/lib/php/sessions/ci_session5ai8hk5kfbdhn01vhcrihm75g6ddafl4): failed to open stream: No space left on device

Filename: drivers/Session_files_driver.php

Line Number: 174

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/oakspringuniversity.com/public_html/application/controllers/Frontpage.php
Line: 9
Function: __construct

File: /var/www/oakspringuniversity.com/public_html/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Warning

Message: session_start(): Failed to read session data: user (path: /var/lib/php/sessions)

Filename: Session/Session.php

Line Number: 143

Backtrace:

File: /var/www/oakspringuniversity.com/public_html/application/controllers/Frontpage.php
Line: 9
Function: __construct

File: /var/www/oakspringuniversity.com/public_html/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

NPV: Canadian Cancer Society: Fundraising Controversy Net Present Value Case Analysis
×




Canadian Cancer Society: Fundraising Controversy Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Canadian Cancer Society: Fundraising Controversy case study


At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Canadian Cancer Society: Fundraising Controversy case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Jana Seijts, Paul Bigus. The Canadian Cancer Society: Fundraising Controversy (referred as “Ccs Cbc” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Strategy & Execution. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Corporate communications, Crisis management, Marketing, Research & development, Strategy.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment




Case Description of Canadian Cancer Society: Fundraising Controversy Case Study


On Wednesday, July 6th, 2011, the communication director, for the Canadian Cancer Society (CCS), in Toronto, Ontario, was faced with a challenging situation. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) had just released an online article that focused on the 2011 CCS budget, more specifically how the CCS allocated millions of dollars each year. Furthermore, the CBC article provided details on how the proportion of donation money the CCS spent on cancer research each year had decreased from 40 per cent in 2000 to under 22 per cent in 2011. With the CBC report circulating in both television and online media, public speculation into CCS's financial management of public donations was starting to grow. It was clear that the CCS communication team would need to respond. A communication strategy would need to be developed for the CCS to follow moving forward, along with a press release to be posted the next day on the CCS website.


Case Authors : Jana Seijts, Paul Bigus

Topic : Strategy & Execution

Related Areas : Corporate communications, Crisis management, Marketing, Research & development, Strategy




Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Canadian Cancer Society: Fundraising Controversy Case Study


Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10006389) -10006389 - -
Year 1 3444821 -6561568 3444821 0.9434 3249831
Year 2 3963471 -2598097 7408292 0.89 3527475
Year 3 3966013 1367916 11374305 0.8396 3329941
Year 4 3223615 4591531 14597920 0.7921 2553405
TOTAL 14597920 12660652


The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2654263

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting


What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.




Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting


There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Profitability Index
2. Payback Period
3. Internal Rate of Return
4. Net Present Value

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Ccs Cbc have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.
2. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Ccs Cbc shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.




Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Canadian Cancer Society: Fundraising Controversy

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Strategy & Execution Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Ccs Cbc often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Ccs Cbc needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10006389) -10006389 - -
Year 1 3444821 -6561568 3444821 0.8696 2995497
Year 2 3963471 -2598097 7408292 0.7561 2996953
Year 3 3966013 1367916 11374305 0.6575 2607718
Year 4 3223615 4591531 14597920 0.5718 1843112
TOTAL 10443280


The Net NPV after 4 years is 436891

(10443280 - 10006389 )






Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%


If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10006389) -10006389 - -
Year 1 3444821 -6561568 3444821 0.8333 2870684
Year 2 3963471 -2598097 7408292 0.6944 2752410
Year 3 3966013 1367916 11374305 0.5787 2295146
Year 4 3223615 4591531 14597920 0.4823 1554598
TOTAL 9472839


The Net NPV after 4 years is -533550

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9472839 - 10006389 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Ccs Cbc to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.



Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Ccs Cbc has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Ccs Cbc can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Ccs Cbc, then the stock price of the Ccs Cbc should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Ccs Cbc should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.




References & Further Readings

Jana Seijts, Paul Bigus (2018), "Canadian Cancer Society: Fundraising Controversy Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.