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Gilead Sciences (A): The Gilead Access Program for HIV Drugs Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Gilead Sciences (A): The Gilead Access Program for HIV Drugs case study


At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Gilead Sciences (A): The Gilead Access Program for HIV Drugs case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by David P. Baron, Keith Krehbiel, Brian Tayan. The Gilead Sciences (A): The Gilead Access Program for HIV Drugs (referred as “Gilead Viread” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Strategy & Execution. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Health, Performance measurement, Policy, Public relations, Strategy.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment






Case Description of Gilead Sciences (A): The Gilead Access Program for HIV Drugs Case Study


Describes the initial considerations of Gilead Sciences as it designed a strategy for delivering its AIDS drug Viread to developing nations in Africa. In October 2001, Gilead Sciences received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the commercial sale of Viread, a significant new drug for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Viread proved to be an immediate success, increasing rapidly in sales and market share in the United States within its first year on the market. As Gilead made plans to take the drug global in early 2003, a high priority was to make the drug readily available to millions of people in the least developed nations, where the HIV virus was having its most devastating effects. Pricing and distribution were key considerations. Gilead did not have a distribution system in place in any of these countries, and the price charged in the United States would be prohibitive in the developing world.


Case Authors : David P. Baron, Keith Krehbiel, Brian Tayan

Topic : Strategy & Execution

Related Areas : Health, Performance measurement, Policy, Public relations, Strategy




Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Gilead Sciences (A): The Gilead Access Program for HIV Drugs Case Study


Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10006289) -10006289 - -
Year 1 3460028 -6546261 3460028 0.9434 3264177
Year 2 3959637 -2586624 7419665 0.89 3524063
Year 3 3954829 1368205 11374494 0.8396 3320551
Year 4 3225470 4593675 14599964 0.7921 2554874
TOTAL 14599964 12663665




The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2657376

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting


What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.




Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting


There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Profitability Index
2. Payback Period
3. Internal Rate of Return
4. Net Present Value

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Gilead Viread have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.
2. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Gilead Viread shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.






Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Gilead Sciences (A): The Gilead Access Program for HIV Drugs

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Strategy & Execution Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Gilead Viread often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Gilead Viread needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.



Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10006289) -10006289 - -
Year 1 3460028 -6546261 3460028 0.8696 3008720
Year 2 3959637 -2586624 7419665 0.7561 2994054
Year 3 3954829 1368205 11374494 0.6575 2600364
Year 4 3225470 4593675 14599964 0.5718 1844173
TOTAL 10447312


The Net NPV after 4 years is 441023

(10447312 - 10006289 )








Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%


If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10006289) -10006289 - -
Year 1 3460028 -6546261 3460028 0.8333 2883357
Year 2 3959637 -2586624 7419665 0.6944 2749748
Year 3 3954829 1368205 11374494 0.5787 2288674
Year 4 3225470 4593675 14599964 0.4823 1555493
TOTAL 9477272


The Net NPV after 4 years is -529017

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9477272 - 10006289 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Gilead Viread to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.





Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Gilead Viread has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Gilead Viread can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Gilead Viread, then the stock price of the Gilead Viread should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Gilead Viread should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.






Negotiation Strategy of Gilead Sciences (A): The Gilead Access Program for HIV Drugs

References & Further Readings

David P. Baron, Keith Krehbiel, Brian Tayan (2018), "Gilead Sciences (A): The Gilead Access Program for HIV Drugs Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.


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