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NPV: Canara Bank Turnaround Net Present Value Case Analysis

Canara Bank Turnaround Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Canara Bank Turnaround case study

At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Canara Bank Turnaround case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by R.R. Sharma, Deepak Tandon. The Canara Bank Turnaround (referred as “Canara Bank” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Strategy & Execution. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Financial management.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment

Case Description of Canara Bank Turnaround Case Study

Canara Bank has been one of the top five public sector banks in India since its founding in 1906. After lagging behind its competitors for some years, it has finally started to recover from non-performing assets and low profitability. Its new chief executive officer has brought vision, strategic direction, and motivation to achieve a remarkable turnaround in 2013/14, but now he faces several key questions. Should the bank launch an ambitious expansion of its branches, online services, information technology, and human resources, based solely on the recent encouraging results? Is the management committee's optimism justified, given that several new initiatives are still at various stages of implementation? Will this growth overstretch Canara Bank's already constrained resources? In order to regain its position and improve reach and profitability in a highly competitive market, an expansion program has to be launched or an opportunity will be missed. R.R. Sharma is affiliated with International Management Institute. Deepak Tandon is affiliated with International Management Institute.

Case Authors : R.R. Sharma, Deepak Tandon

Topic : Strategy & Execution

Related Areas : Financial management

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Canara Bank Turnaround Case Study

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10011176) -10011176 - -
Year 1 3454522 -6556654 3454522 0.9434 3258983
Year 2 3955029 -2601625 7409551 0.89 3519962
Year 3 3974931 1373306 11384482 0.8396 3337429
Year 4 3226316 4599622 14610798 0.7921 2555544
TOTAL 14610798 12671918

The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2660742

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting

What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.

Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting

There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Net Present Value
2. Payback Period
3. Profitability Index
4. Internal Rate of Return

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Canara Bank shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.
2. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Canara Bank have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.

Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Canara Bank Turnaround

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Strategy & Execution Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Canara Bank often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Canara Bank needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10011176) -10011176 - -
Year 1 3454522 -6556654 3454522 0.8696 3003932
Year 2 3955029 -2601625 7409551 0.7561 2990570
Year 3 3974931 1373306 11384482 0.6575 2613582
Year 4 3226316 4599622 14610798 0.5718 1844657
TOTAL 10452741

The Net NPV after 4 years is 441565

(10452741 - 10011176 )

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%

If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10011176) -10011176 - -
Year 1 3454522 -6556654 3454522 0.8333 2878768
Year 2 3955029 -2601625 7409551 0.6944 2746548
Year 3 3974931 1373306 11384482 0.5787 2300307
Year 4 3226316 4599622 14610798 0.4823 1555901
TOTAL 9481524

The Net NPV after 4 years is -529652

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9481524 - 10011176 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Canara Bank to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.

Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Canara Bank has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Canara Bank can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Canara Bank, then the stock price of the Canara Bank should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Canara Bank should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.

References & Further Readings

R.R. Sharma, Deepak Tandon (2018), "Canara Bank Turnaround Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.