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Yaowawit School Kapong Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Yaowawit School Kapong case study


At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Yaowawit School Kapong case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Krittinee Nuttavuthisit. The Yaowawit School Kapong (referred as “Yaowawit School” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Strategy & Execution. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Policy, Social responsibility, Strategic planning, Sustainability.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment




Case Description of Yaowawit School Kapong Case Study


The tsunami of December 2004 caused widespread devastation in the southern part of Thailand. After the tragedy, the Yaowawit School Kapong was founded with the aims to provide education and living support to needy children. This public welfare boarding school has been completely funded by partners and donors from all over the world via the Children's World Academy Foundation. However, a major question looms: For how long can the school continue to financially rely on charitable help? Because of this challenge, from the beginning the school's projects have been created to offer a practical education for the children and also generate income to cover the costs of running the school. One of these projects is the Yaowawit Lodge, which was developed to serve as the essential income-generating unit and to provide children with practical training in the hospitality business, the most promising job opportunity in this part of Thailand. Because of its unique character as a for-profit unit within a non-profit organization, Yaowawit Lodge must find ways to target niche customers, position itself in the market, and deliver marketing strategies accordingly. Additional challenges it faces include the location, which is far from the popular tourist areas; market perceptions concerning the combination of a primary school and a hotel; and the child labor issue.


Case Authors : Krittinee Nuttavuthisit

Topic : Strategy & Execution

Related Areas : Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Policy, Social responsibility, Strategic planning, Sustainability




Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Yaowawit School Kapong Case Study


Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10026032) -10026032 - -
Year 1 3443426 -6582606 3443426 0.9434 3248515
Year 2 3964515 -2618091 7407941 0.89 3528404
Year 3 3949453 1331362 11357394 0.8396 3316037
Year 4 3240344 4571706 14597738 0.7921 2566656
TOTAL 14597738 12659612


The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2633580

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting


What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.




Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting


There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Net Present Value
2. Internal Rate of Return
3. Payback Period
4. Profitability Index

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Yaowawit School shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.
2. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Yaowawit School have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.




Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Yaowawit School Kapong

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Strategy & Execution Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Yaowawit School often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Yaowawit School needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10026032) -10026032 - -
Year 1 3443426 -6582606 3443426 0.8696 2994283
Year 2 3964515 -2618091 7407941 0.7561 2997743
Year 3 3949453 1331362 11357394 0.6575 2596829
Year 4 3240344 4571706 14597738 0.5718 1852677
TOTAL 10441533


The Net NPV after 4 years is 415501

(10441533 - 10026032 )






Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%


If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Discounted
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10026032) -10026032 - -
Year 1 3443426 -6582606 3443426 0.8333 2869522
Year 2 3964515 -2618091 7407941 0.6944 2753135
Year 3 3949453 1331362 11357394 0.5787 2285563
Year 4 3240344 4571706 14597738 0.4823 1562666
TOTAL 9470886


The Net NPV after 4 years is -555146

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9470886 - 10026032 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Yaowawit School to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.



Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Yaowawit School has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Yaowawit School can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Yaowawit School, then the stock price of the Yaowawit School should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Yaowawit School should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.




References & Further Readings

Krittinee Nuttavuthisit (2018), "Yaowawit School Kapong Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.