A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Warning

Message: fopen(/var/lib/php/sessions/ci_session37l6pru163jv4e318s46gvbjuih0auab): failed to open stream: No space left on device

Filename: drivers/Session_files_driver.php

Line Number: 174


File: /var/www/oakspringuniversity.com/public_html/application/controllers/Frontpage.php
Line: 9
Function: __construct

File: /var/www/oakspringuniversity.com/public_html/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Warning

Message: session_start(): Failed to read session data: user (path: /var/lib/php/sessions)

Filename: Session/Session.php

Line Number: 143


File: /var/www/oakspringuniversity.com/public_html/application/controllers/Frontpage.php
Line: 9
Function: __construct

File: /var/www/oakspringuniversity.com/public_html/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

NPV: Human Rights Watch: The Burma Situation (B) Net Present Value Case Analysis

Human Rights Watch: The Burma Situation (B) Net Present Value (NPV) / MBA Resources

Introduction to Net Present Value (NPV) - What is Net Present Value (NPV) ? How it impacts financial decisions regarding project management?

NPV solution for Human Rights Watch: The Burma Situation (B) case study

At Oak Spring University, we provide corporate level professional Net Present Value (NPV) case study solution. Human Rights Watch: The Burma Situation (B) case study is a Harvard Business School (HBR) case study written by Yves Plourde, Shoma Patnaik. The Human Rights Watch: The Burma Situation (B) (referred as “Hrw Burma” from here on) case study provides evaluation & decision scenario in field of Global Business. It also touches upon business topics such as - Value proposition, Technology.

The net present value (NPV) of an investment proposal is the present value of the proposal’s net cash flows less the proposal’s initial cash outflow. If a project’s NPV is greater than or equal to zero, the project should be accepted.

NPV = Present Value of Future Cash Flows LESS Project’s Initial Investment

Case Description of Human Rights Watch: The Burma Situation (B) Case Study

Supplement to case HEC178. This two-part case deals with the events surrounding the monitoring by Human Rights Watch (HRW) of human rights violations targeting Rohingya Muslims in Burma in October 2012. The case focuses on HRW's decision to publish a report of the situation and the impact of that report in Burma and abroad. While most human rights violation investigations are 'business as usual' for HRW, the situation presented in this case was different: the primary material for the investigation was satellite imagery, not the eyewitness reports typically used by HRW. The case is designed to stimulate discussion of value creation by NGOs, the effect of technological development on NGO operations, and the development of new capabilities by NGOs. It also introduces students to human rights issues, a topic rarely discussed in business schools. Part A provides background to address questions concerning (1) whether or not HRW should report the violations and (2) how satellite imagery can provide sufficient evidence to raise awareness of a situation. Part B covers the impact of the report on the situation by looking at the response from the media, the United Nations, the United States, and the Government of Burma. The case also sheds light on the challenges faced by HRW in the fulfillment of its mission.

Case Authors : Yves Plourde, Shoma Patnaik

Topic : Global Business

Related Areas : Technology

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 6% for Human Rights Watch: The Burma Situation (B) Case Study

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 6 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10001499) -10001499 - -
Year 1 3444928 -6556571 3444928 0.9434 3249932
Year 2 3979213 -2577358 7424141 0.89 3541485
Year 3 3944696 1367338 11368837 0.8396 3312043
Year 4 3229387 4596725 14598224 0.7921 2557977
TOTAL 14598224 12661437

The Net Present Value at 6% discount rate is 2659938

In isolation the NPV number doesn't mean much but put in right context then it is one of the best method to evaluate project returns. In this article we will cover -

Different methods of capital budgeting

What is NPV & Formula of NPV,
How it is calculated,
How to use NPV number for project evaluation, and
Scenario Planning given risks and management priorities.

Capital Budgeting Approaches

Methods of Capital Budgeting

There are four types of capital budgeting techniques that are widely used in the corporate world –

1. Profitability Index
2. Internal Rate of Return
3. Net Present Value
4. Payback Period

Apart from the Payback period method which is an additive method, rest of the methods are based on Discounted Cash Flow technique. Even though cash flow can be calculated based on the nature of the project, for the simplicity of the article we are assuming that all the expected cash flows are realized at the end of the year.

Discounted Cash Flow approaches provide a more objective basis for evaluating and selecting investment projects. They take into consideration both –

1. Timing of the expected cash flows – stockholders of Hrw Burma have higher preference for cash returns over 4-5 years rather than 10-15 years given the nature of the volatility in the industry.
2. Magnitude of both incoming and outgoing cash flows – Projects can be capital intensive, time intensive, or both. Hrw Burma shareholders have preference for diversified projects investment rather than prospective high income from a single capital intensive project.

Formula and Steps to Calculate Net Present Value (NPV) of Human Rights Watch: The Burma Situation (B)

NPV = Net Cash In Flowt1 / (1+r)t1 + Net Cash In Flowt2 / (1+r)t2 + … Net Cash In Flowtn / (1+r)tn
Less Net Cash Out Flowt0 / (1+r)t0

Where t = time period, in this case year 1, year 2 and so on.
r = discount rate or return that could be earned using other safe proposition such as fixed deposit or treasury bond rate. Net Cash In Flow – What the firm will get each year.
Net Cash Out Flow – What the firm needs to invest initially in the project.

Step 1 – Understand the nature of the project and calculate cash flow for each year.
Step 2 – Discount those cash flow based on the discount rate.
Step 3 – Add all the discounted cash flow.
Step 4 – Selection of the project

Why Global Business Managers need to know Financial Tools such as Net Present Value (NPV)?

In our daily workplace we often come across people and colleagues who are just focused on their core competency and targets they have to deliver. For example marketing managers at Hrw Burma often design programs whose objective is to drive brand awareness and customer reach. But how that 30 point increase in brand awareness or 10 point increase in customer touch points will result into shareholders’ value is not specified.

To overcome such scenarios managers at Hrw Burma needs to not only know the financial aspect of project management but also needs to have tools to integrate them into part of the project development and monitoring plan.

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 15%

After working through various assumptions we reached a conclusion that risk is far higher than 6%. In a reasonably stable industry with weak competition - 15% discount rate can be a good benchmark.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 15 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10001499) -10001499 - -
Year 1 3444928 -6556571 3444928 0.8696 2995590
Year 2 3979213 -2577358 7424141 0.7561 3008857
Year 3 3944696 1367338 11368837 0.6575 2593702
Year 4 3229387 4596725 14598224 0.5718 1846412
TOTAL 10444560

The Net NPV after 4 years is 443061

(10444560 - 10001499 )

Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) at 20%

If the risk component is high in the industry then we should go for a higher hurdle rate / discount rate of 20%.

Years              Cash Flow     Net Cash Flow     Cumulative    
Cash Flow
Discount Rate
@ 20 %
Cash Flows
Year 0 (10001499) -10001499 - -
Year 1 3444928 -6556571 3444928 0.8333 2870773
Year 2 3979213 -2577358 7424141 0.6944 2763342
Year 3 3944696 1367338 11368837 0.5787 2282810
Year 4 3229387 4596725 14598224 0.4823 1557382
TOTAL 9474308

The Net NPV after 4 years is -527191

At 20% discount rate the NPV is negative (9474308 - 10001499 ) so ideally we can't select the project if macro and micro factors don't allow financial managers of Hrw Burma to discount cash flow at lower discount rates such as 15%.

Acceptance Criteria of a Project based on NPV

Simplest Approach – If the investment project of Hrw Burma has a NPV value higher than Zero then finance managers at Hrw Burma can ACCEPT the project, otherwise they can reject the project. This means that project will deliver higher returns over the period of time than any alternate investment strategy.

In theory if the required rate of return or discount rate is chosen correctly by finance managers at Hrw Burma, then the stock price of the Hrw Burma should change by same amount of the NPV. In real world we know that share price also reflects various other factors that can be related to both macro and micro environment.

In the same vein – accepting the project with zero NPV should result in stagnant share price. Finance managers use discount rates as a measure of risk components in the project execution process.

Sensitivity Analysis

Project selection is often a far more complex decision than just choosing it based on the NPV number. Finance managers at Hrw Burma should conduct a sensitivity analysis to better understand not only the inherent risk of the projects but also how those risks can be either factored in or mitigated during the project execution. Sensitivity analysis helps in –

What can impact the cash flow of the project.

What will be a multi year spillover effect of various taxation regulations.

What are the uncertainties surrounding the project Initial Cash Outlay (ICO’s). ICO’s often have several different components such as land, machinery, building, and other equipment.

Understanding of risks involved in the project.

What are the key aspects of the projects that need to be monitored, refined, and retuned for continuous delivery of projected cash flows.

Some of the assumptions while using the Discounted Cash Flow Methods –

Projects are assumed to be Mutually Exclusive – This is seldom the came in modern day giant organizations where projects are often inter-related and rejecting a project solely based on NPV can result in sunk cost from a related project.

Independent projects have independent cash flows – As explained in the marketing project – though the project may look independent but in reality it is not as the brand awareness project can be closely associated with the spending on sales promotions and product specific advertising.

References & Further Readings

Yves Plourde, Shoma Patnaik (2018), "Human Rights Watch: The Burma Situation (B) Harvard Business Review Case Study. Published by HBR Publications.